Source code for tornado.httpserver

#!/usr/bin/env python
# Copyright 2009 Facebook
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may
# not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain
# a copy of the License at
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
# WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
# License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.

"""A non-blocking, single-threaded HTTP server.

Typical applications have little direct interaction with the `HTTPServer`
class except to start a server at the beginning of the process
(and even that is often done indirectly via `tornado.web.Application.listen`).

This module also defines the `HTTPRequest` class which is exposed via

import errno
import logging
import os
import socket
import time
import urlparse

from tornado.escape import utf8, native_str, parse_qs_bytes
from tornado import httputil
from tornado import ioloop
from tornado import iostream
from tornado import stack_context
from tornado.util import b, bytes_type

    import fcntl
except ImportError:
    if == 'nt':
        from tornado import win32_support as fcntl

    import ssl # Python 2.6+
except ImportError:
    ssl = None

    import multiprocessing # Python 2.6+
except ImportError:
    multiprocessing = None

def _cpu_count():
    if multiprocessing is not None:
            return multiprocessing.cpu_count()
        except NotImplementedError:
        return os.sysconf("SC_NPROCESSORS_CONF")
    except ValueError:
    logging.error("Could not detect number of processors; "
                  "running with one process")
    return 1

[docs]class HTTPServer(object): r"""A non-blocking, single-threaded HTTP server. A server is defined by a request callback that takes an HTTPRequest instance as an argument and writes a valid HTTP response with request.write(). request.finish() finishes the request (but does not necessarily close the connection in the case of HTTP/1.1 keep-alive requests). A simple example server that echoes back the URI you requested:: import httpserver import ioloop def handle_request(request): message = "You requested %s\n" % request.uri request.write("HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\nContent-Length: %d\r\n\r\n%s" % ( len(message), message)) request.finish() http_server = httpserver.HTTPServer(handle_request) http_server.listen(8888) ioloop.IOLoop.instance().start() HTTPServer is a very basic connection handler. Beyond parsing the HTTP request body and headers, the only HTTP semantics implemented in HTTPServer is HTTP/1.1 keep-alive connections. We do not, however, implement chunked encoding, so the request callback must provide a Content-Length header or implement chunked encoding for HTTP/1.1 requests for the server to run correctly for HTTP/1.1 clients. If the request handler is unable to do this, you can provide the no_keep_alive argument to the HTTPServer constructor, which will ensure the connection is closed on every request no matter what HTTP version the client is using. If xheaders is True, we support the X-Real-Ip and X-Scheme headers, which override the remote IP and HTTP scheme for all requests. These headers are useful when running Tornado behind a reverse proxy or load balancer. HTTPServer can serve HTTPS (SSL) traffic with Python 2.6+ and OpenSSL. To make this server serve SSL traffic, send the ssl_options dictionary argument with the arguments required for the ssl.wrap_socket() method, including "certfile" and "keyfile":: HTTPServer(applicaton, ssl_options={ "certfile": os.path.join(data_dir, "mydomain.crt"), "keyfile": os.path.join(data_dir, "mydomain.key"), }) By default, listen() runs in a single thread in a single process. You can utilize all available CPUs on this machine by calling bind() and start() instead of listen():: http_server = httpserver.HTTPServer(handle_request) http_server.bind(8888) http_server.start(0) # Forks multiple sub-processes ioloop.IOLoop.instance().start() start(0) detects the number of CPUs on this machine and "pre-forks" that number of child processes so that we have one Tornado process per CPU, all with their own IOLoop. You can also pass in the specific number of child processes you want to run with if you want to override this auto-detection. """ def __init__(self, request_callback, no_keep_alive=False, io_loop=None, xheaders=False, ssl_options=None): """Initializes the server with the given request callback. If you use pre-forking/start() instead of the listen() method to start your server, you should not pass an IOLoop instance to this constructor. Each pre-forked child process will create its own IOLoop instance after the forking process. """ self.request_callback = request_callback self.no_keep_alive = no_keep_alive self.io_loop = io_loop self.xheaders = xheaders self.ssl_options = ssl_options self._sockets = {} # fd -> socket object self._started = False
[docs] def listen(self, port, address=""): """Binds to the given port and starts the server in a single process. This method is a shortcut for: server.bind(port, address) server.start(1) """ self.bind(port, address) self.start(1)
[docs] def bind(self, port, address=None, family=socket.AF_UNSPEC): """Binds this server to the given port on the given address. To start the server, call start(). If you want to run this server in a single process, you can call listen() as a shortcut to the sequence of bind() and start() calls. Address may be either an IP address or hostname. If it's a hostname, the server will listen on all IP addresses associated with the name. Address may be an empty string or None to listen on all available interfaces. Family may be set to either socket.AF_INET or socket.AF_INET6 to restrict to ipv4 or ipv6 addresses, otherwise both will be used if available. This method may be called multiple times prior to start() to listen on multiple ports or interfaces. """ if address == "": address = None for res in socket.getaddrinfo(address, port, family, socket.SOCK_STREAM, 0, socket.AI_PASSIVE | socket.AI_ADDRCONFIG): af, socktype, proto, canonname, sockaddr = res sock = socket.socket(af, socktype, proto) flags = fcntl.fcntl(sock.fileno(), fcntl.F_GETFD) flags |= fcntl.FD_CLOEXEC fcntl.fcntl(sock.fileno(), fcntl.F_SETFD, flags) sock.setsockopt(socket.SOL_SOCKET, socket.SO_REUSEADDR, 1) if af == socket.AF_INET6: # On linux, ipv6 sockets accept ipv4 too by default, # but this makes it impossible to bind to both # in ipv4 and :: in ipv6. On other systems, # separate sockets *must* be used to listen for both ipv4 # and ipv6. For consistency, always disable ipv4 on our # ipv6 sockets and use a separate ipv4 socket when needed. # # Python 2.x on windows doesn't have IPPROTO_IPV6. if hasattr(socket, "IPPROTO_IPV6"): sock.setsockopt(socket.IPPROTO_IPV6, socket.IPV6_V6ONLY, 1) sock.setblocking(0) sock.bind(sockaddr) sock.listen(128) self._sockets[sock.fileno()] = sock if self._started: self.io_loop.add_handler(sock.fileno(), self._handle_events, ioloop.IOLoop.READ)
[docs] def start(self, num_processes=1): """Starts this server in the IOLoop. By default, we run the server in this process and do not fork any additional child process. If num_processes is None or <= 0, we detect the number of cores available on this machine and fork that number of child processes. If num_processes is given and > 1, we fork that specific number of sub-processes. Since we use processes and not threads, there is no shared memory between any server code. Note that multiple processes are not compatible with the autoreload module (or the debug=True option to tornado.web.Application). When using multiple processes, no IOLoops can be created or referenced until after the call to HTTPServer.start(n). """ assert not self._started self._started = True if num_processes is None or num_processes <= 0: num_processes = _cpu_count() if num_processes > 1 and ioloop.IOLoop.initialized(): logging.error("Cannot run in multiple processes: IOLoop instance " "has already been initialized. You cannot call " "IOLoop.instance() before calling start()") num_processes = 1 if num_processes > 1:"Pre-forking %d server processes", num_processes) for i in range(num_processes): if os.fork() == 0: import random from binascii import hexlify try: # If available, use the same method as # seed = long(hexlify(os.urandom(16)), 16) except NotImplementedError: # Include the pid to avoid initializing two # processes to the same value seed(int(time.time() * 1000) ^ os.getpid()) random.seed(seed) self.io_loop = ioloop.IOLoop.instance() for fd in self._sockets.keys(): self.io_loop.add_handler(fd, self._handle_events, ioloop.IOLoop.READ) return os.waitpid(-1, 0) else: if not self.io_loop: self.io_loop = ioloop.IOLoop.instance() for fd in self._sockets.keys(): self.io_loop.add_handler(fd, self._handle_events, ioloop.IOLoop.READ)
[docs] def stop(self): """Stops listening for new connections. Requests currently in progress may still continue after the server is stopped. """ for fd, sock in self._sockets.iteritems(): self.io_loop.remove_handler(fd) sock.close()
def _handle_events(self, fd, events): while True: try: connection, address = self._sockets[fd].accept() except socket.error, e: if e.args[0] in (errno.EWOULDBLOCK, errno.EAGAIN): return raise if self.ssl_options is not None: assert ssl, "Python 2.6+ and OpenSSL required for SSL" try: connection = ssl.wrap_socket(connection, server_side=True, do_handshake_on_connect=False, **self.ssl_options) except ssl.SSLError, err: if err.args[0] == ssl.SSL_ERROR_EOF: return connection.close() else: raise except socket.error, err: if err.args[0] == errno.ECONNABORTED: return connection.close() else: raise try: if self.ssl_options is not None: stream = iostream.SSLIOStream(connection, io_loop=self.io_loop) else: stream = iostream.IOStream(connection, io_loop=self.io_loop) HTTPConnection(stream, address, self.request_callback, self.no_keep_alive, self.xheaders) except: logging.error("Error in connection callback", exc_info=True)
class _BadRequestException(Exception): """Exception class for malformed HTTP requests.""" pass
[docs]class HTTPConnection(object): """Handles a connection to an HTTP client, executing HTTP requests. We parse HTTP headers and bodies, and execute the request callback until the HTTP conection is closed. """ def __init__(self, stream, address, request_callback, no_keep_alive=False, xheaders=False): = stream self.address = address self.request_callback = request_callback self.no_keep_alive = no_keep_alive self.xheaders = xheaders self._request = None self._request_finished = False # Save stack context here, outside of any request. This keeps # contexts from one request from leaking into the next. self._header_callback = stack_context.wrap(self._on_headers)"\r\n\r\n"), self._header_callback)
[docs] def write(self, chunk): """Writes a chunk of output to the stream.""" assert self._request, "Request closed" if not, self._on_write_complete)
[docs] def finish(self): """Finishes the request.""" assert self._request, "Request closed" self._request_finished = True if not self._finish_request()
def _on_write_complete(self): if self._request_finished: self._finish_request() def _finish_request(self): if self.no_keep_alive: disconnect = True else: connection_header = self._request.headers.get("Connection") if self._request.supports_http_1_1(): disconnect = connection_header == "close" elif ("Content-Length" in self._request.headers or self._request.method in ("HEAD", "GET")): disconnect = connection_header != "Keep-Alive" else: disconnect = True self._request = None self._request_finished = False if disconnect: return"\r\n\r\n"), self._header_callback) def _on_headers(self, data): try: data = native_str(data.decode('latin1')) eol = data.find("\r\n") start_line = data[:eol] try: method, uri, version = start_line.split(" ") except ValueError: raise _BadRequestException("Malformed HTTP request line") if not version.startswith("HTTP/"): raise _BadRequestException("Malformed HTTP version in HTTP Request-Line") headers = httputil.HTTPHeaders.parse(data[eol:]) self._request = HTTPRequest( connection=self, method=method, uri=uri, version=version, headers=headers, remote_ip=self.address[0]) content_length = headers.get("Content-Length") if content_length: content_length = int(content_length) if content_length > raise _BadRequestException("Content-Length too long") if headers.get("Expect") == "100-continue":"HTTP/1.1 100 (Continue)\r\n\r\n"), self._on_request_body) return self.request_callback(self._request) except _BadRequestException, e:"Malformed HTTP request from %s: %s", self.address[0], e) return def _on_request_body(self, data): self._request.body = data content_type = self._request.headers.get("Content-Type", "") if self._request.method in ("POST", "PUT"): if content_type.startswith("application/x-www-form-urlencoded"): arguments = parse_qs_bytes(native_str(self._request.body)) for name, values in arguments.iteritems(): values = [v for v in values if v] if values: self._request.arguments.setdefault(name, []).extend( values) elif content_type.startswith("multipart/form-data"): fields = content_type.split(";") for field in fields: k, sep, v = field.strip().partition("=") if k == "boundary" and v: httputil.parse_multipart_form_data( utf8(v), data, self._request.arguments, self._request.files) break else: logging.warning("Invalid multipart/form-data") self.request_callback(self._request)
[docs]class HTTPRequest(object): """A single HTTP request. All attributes are type `str` unless otherwise noted. .. attribute:: method HTTP request method, e.g. "GET" or "POST" .. attribute:: uri The requested uri. .. attribute:: path The path portion of `uri` .. attribute:: query The query portion of `uri` .. attribute:: version HTTP version specified in request, e.g. "HTTP/1.1" .. attribute:: headers `HTTPHeader` dictionary-like object for request headers. Acts like a case-insensitive dictionary with additional methods for repeated headers. .. attribute:: body Request body, if present, as a byte string. .. attribute:: remote_ip Client's IP address as a string. If `HTTPServer.xheaders` is set, will pass along the real IP address provided by a load balancer in the ``X-Real-Ip`` header .. attribute:: protocol The protocol used, either "http" or "https". If `HTTPServer.xheaders` is seet, will pass along the protocol used by a load balancer if reported via an ``X-Scheme`` header. .. attribute:: host The requested hostname, usually taken from the ``Host`` header. .. attribute:: arguments GET/POST arguments are available in the arguments property, which maps arguments names to lists of values (to support multiple values for individual names). Names are of type `str`, while arguments are byte strings. Note that this is different from `RequestHandler.get_argument`, which returns argument values as unicode strings. .. attribute:: files File uploads are available in the files property, which maps file names to list of files. Each file is a dictionary of the form {"filename":..., "content_type":..., "body":...}. The content_type comes from the provided HTTP header and should not be trusted outright given that it can be easily forged. .. attribute:: connection An HTTP request is attached to a single HTTP connection, which can be accessed through the "connection" attribute. Since connections are typically kept open in HTTP/1.1, multiple requests can be handled sequentially on a single connection. """ def __init__(self, method, uri, version="HTTP/1.0", headers=None, body=None, remote_ip=None, protocol=None, host=None, files=None, connection=None): self.method = method self.uri = uri self.version = version self.headers = headers or httputil.HTTPHeaders() self.body = body or "" if connection and connection.xheaders: # Squid uses X-Forwarded-For, others use X-Real-Ip self.remote_ip = self.headers.get( "X-Real-Ip", self.headers.get("X-Forwarded-For", remote_ip)) # AWS uses X-Forwarded-Proto self.protocol = self.headers.get( "X-Scheme", self.headers.get("X-Forwarded-Proto", protocol)) if self.protocol not in ("http", "https"): self.protocol = "http" else: self.remote_ip = remote_ip if protocol: self.protocol = protocol elif connection and isinstance(, iostream.SSLIOStream): self.protocol = "https" else: self.protocol = "http" = host or self.headers.get("Host") or "" self.files = files or {} self.connection = connection self._start_time = time.time() self._finish_time = None scheme, netloc, path, query, fragment = urlparse.urlsplit(native_str(uri)) self.path = path self.query = query arguments = parse_qs_bytes(query) self.arguments = {} for name, values in arguments.iteritems(): values = [v for v in values if v] if values: self.arguments[name] = values
[docs] def supports_http_1_1(self): """Returns True if this request supports HTTP/1.1 semantics""" return self.version == "HTTP/1.1"
[docs] def write(self, chunk): """Writes the given chunk to the response stream.""" assert isinstance(chunk, bytes_type) self.connection.write(chunk)
[docs] def finish(self): """Finishes this HTTP request on the open connection.""" self.connection.finish() self._finish_time = time.time()
[docs] def full_url(self): """Reconstructs the full URL for this request.""" return self.protocol + "://" + + self.uri
[docs] def request_time(self): """Returns the amount of time it took for this request to execute.""" if self._finish_time is None: return time.time() - self._start_time else: return self._finish_time - self._start_time
[docs] def get_ssl_certificate(self): """Returns the client's SSL certificate, if any. To use client certificates, the HTTPServer must have been constructed with cert_reqs set in ssl_options, e.g.:: server = HTTPServer(app, ssl_options=dict( certfile="foo.crt", keyfile="foo.key", cert_reqs=ssl.CERT_REQUIRED, ca_certs="cacert.crt")) The return value is a dictionary, see SSLSocket.getpeercert() in the standard library for more details. """ try: return except ssl.SSLError: return None
def __repr__(self): attrs = ("protocol", "host", "method", "uri", "version", "remote_ip", "body") args = ", ".join(["%s=%r" % (n, getattr(self, n)) for n in attrs]) return "%s(%s, headers=%s)" % ( self.__class__.__name__, args, dict(self.headers))