Source code for tornado.httpserver

#!/usr/bin/env python
# Copyright 2009 Facebook
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may
# not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain
# a copy of the License at
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
# WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
# License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.

"""A non-blocking, single-threaded HTTP server.

Typical applications have little direct interaction with the `HTTPServer`
class except to start a server at the beginning of the process
(and even that is often done indirectly via `tornado.web.Application.listen`).

This module also defines the `HTTPRequest` class which is exposed via

import Cookie
import logging
import socket
import time
import urlparse

from tornado.escape import utf8, native_str, parse_qs_bytes
from tornado import httputil
from tornado import iostream
from tornado.netutil import TCPServer
from tornado import stack_context
from tornado.util import b, bytes_type

    import ssl # Python 2.6+
except ImportError:
    ssl = None

[docs]class HTTPServer(TCPServer): r"""A non-blocking, single-threaded HTTP server. A server is defined by a request callback that takes an HTTPRequest instance as an argument and writes a valid HTTP response with `HTTPRequest.write`. `HTTPRequest.finish` finishes the request (but does not necessarily close the connection in the case of HTTP/1.1 keep-alive requests). A simple example server that echoes back the URI you requested:: import httpserver import ioloop def handle_request(request): message = "You requested %s\n" % request.uri request.write("HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\nContent-Length: %d\r\n\r\n%s" % ( len(message), message)) request.finish() http_server = httpserver.HTTPServer(handle_request) http_server.listen(8888) ioloop.IOLoop.instance().start() `HTTPServer` is a very basic connection handler. Beyond parsing the HTTP request body and headers, the only HTTP semantics implemented in `HTTPServer` is HTTP/1.1 keep-alive connections. We do not, however, implement chunked encoding, so the request callback must provide a ``Content-Length`` header or implement chunked encoding for HTTP/1.1 requests for the server to run correctly for HTTP/1.1 clients. If the request handler is unable to do this, you can provide the ``no_keep_alive`` argument to the `HTTPServer` constructor, which will ensure the connection is closed on every request no matter what HTTP version the client is using. If ``xheaders`` is ``True``, we support the ``X-Real-Ip`` and ``X-Scheme`` headers, which override the remote IP and HTTP scheme for all requests. These headers are useful when running Tornado behind a reverse proxy or load balancer. `HTTPServer` can serve SSL traffic with Python 2.6+ and OpenSSL. To make this server serve SSL traffic, send the ssl_options dictionary argument with the arguments required for the `ssl.wrap_socket` method, including "certfile" and "keyfile":: HTTPServer(applicaton, ssl_options={ "certfile": os.path.join(data_dir, "mydomain.crt"), "keyfile": os.path.join(data_dir, "mydomain.key"), }) `HTTPServer` initialization follows one of three patterns (the initialization methods are defined on `tornado.netutil.TCPServer`): 1. `~tornado.netutil.TCPServer.listen`: simple single-process:: server = HTTPServer(app) server.listen(8888) IOLoop.instance().start() In many cases, `tornado.web.Application.listen` can be used to avoid the need to explicitly create the `HTTPServer`. 2. `~tornado.netutil.TCPServer.bind`/`~tornado.netutil.TCPServer.start`: simple multi-process:: server = HTTPServer(app) server.bind(8888) server.start(0) # Forks multiple sub-processes IOLoop.instance().start() When using this interface, an `IOLoop` must *not* be passed to the `HTTPServer` constructor. `start` will always start the server on the default singleton `IOLoop`. 3. `~tornado.netutil.TCPServer.add_sockets`: advanced multi-process:: sockets = tornado.netutil.bind_sockets(8888) tornado.process.fork_processes(0) server = HTTPServer(app) server.add_sockets(sockets) IOLoop.instance().start() The `add_sockets` interface is more complicated, but it can be used with `tornado.process.fork_processes` to give you more flexibility in when the fork happens. `add_sockets` can also be used in single-process servers if you want to create your listening sockets in some way other than `tornado.netutil.bind_sockets`. """ def __init__(self, request_callback, no_keep_alive=False, io_loop=None, xheaders=False, ssl_options=None, **kwargs): self.request_callback = request_callback self.no_keep_alive = no_keep_alive self.xheaders = xheaders TCPServer.__init__(self, io_loop=io_loop, ssl_options=ssl_options, **kwargs) def handle_stream(self, stream, address): HTTPConnection(stream, address, self.request_callback, self.no_keep_alive, self.xheaders)
class _BadRequestException(Exception): """Exception class for malformed HTTP requests.""" pass
[docs]class HTTPConnection(object): """Handles a connection to an HTTP client, executing HTTP requests. We parse HTTP headers and bodies, and execute the request callback until the HTTP conection is closed. """ def __init__(self, stream, address, request_callback, no_keep_alive=False, xheaders=False): = stream if not in (socket.AF_INET, socket.AF_INET6): # Unix (or other) socket; fake the remote address address = ('', 0) self.address = address self.request_callback = request_callback self.no_keep_alive = no_keep_alive self.xheaders = xheaders self._request = None self._request_finished = False # Save stack context here, outside of any request. This keeps # contexts from one request from leaking into the next. self._header_callback = stack_context.wrap(self._on_headers)"\r\n\r\n"), self._header_callback) self._write_callback = None
[docs] def write(self, chunk, callback=None): """Writes a chunk of output to the stream.""" assert self._request, "Request closed" if not self._write_callback = stack_context.wrap(callback), self._on_write_complete)
[docs] def finish(self): """Finishes the request.""" assert self._request, "Request closed" self._request_finished = True if not self._finish_request()
def _on_write_complete(self): if self._write_callback is not None: callback = self._write_callback self._write_callback = None callback() # _on_write_complete is enqueued on the IOLoop whenever the # IOStream's write buffer becomes empty, but it's possible for # another callback that runs on the IOLoop before it to # simultaneously write more data and finish the request. If # there is still data in the IOStream, a future # _on_write_complete will be responsible for calling # _finish_request. if self._request_finished and not self._finish_request() def _finish_request(self): if self.no_keep_alive: disconnect = True else: connection_header = self._request.headers.get("Connection") if self._request.supports_http_1_1(): disconnect = connection_header == "close" elif ("Content-Length" in self._request.headers or self._request.method in ("HEAD", "GET")): disconnect = connection_header != "Keep-Alive" else: disconnect = True self._request = None self._request_finished = False if disconnect: return"\r\n\r\n"), self._header_callback) def _on_headers(self, data): try: data = native_str(data.decode('latin1')) eol = data.find("\r\n") start_line = data[:eol] try: method, uri, version = start_line.split(" ") except ValueError: raise _BadRequestException("Malformed HTTP request line") if not version.startswith("HTTP/"): raise _BadRequestException("Malformed HTTP version in HTTP Request-Line") headers = httputil.HTTPHeaders.parse(data[eol:]) self._request = HTTPRequest( connection=self, method=method, uri=uri, version=version, headers=headers, remote_ip=self.address[0]) content_length = headers.get("Content-Length") if content_length: content_length = int(content_length) if content_length > raise _BadRequestException("Content-Length too long") if headers.get("Expect") == "100-continue":"HTTP/1.1 100 (Continue)\r\n\r\n")), self._on_request_body) return self.request_callback(self._request) except _BadRequestException, e:"Malformed HTTP request from %s: %s", self.address[0], e) return def _on_request_body(self, data): self._request.body = data content_type = self._request.headers.get("Content-Type", "") if self._request.method in ("POST", "PUT"): if content_type.startswith("application/x-www-form-urlencoded"): arguments = parse_qs_bytes(native_str(self._request.body)) for name, values in arguments.iteritems(): values = [v for v in values if v] if values: self._request.arguments.setdefault(name, []).extend( values) elif content_type.startswith("multipart/form-data"): fields = content_type.split(";") for field in fields: k, sep, v = field.strip().partition("=") if k == "boundary" and v: httputil.parse_multipart_form_data( utf8(v), data, self._request.arguments, self._request.files) break else: logging.warning("Invalid multipart/form-data") self.request_callback(self._request)
[docs]class HTTPRequest(object): """A single HTTP request. All attributes are type `str` unless otherwise noted. .. attribute:: method HTTP request method, e.g. "GET" or "POST" .. attribute:: uri The requested uri. .. attribute:: path The path portion of `uri` .. attribute:: query The query portion of `uri` .. attribute:: version HTTP version specified in request, e.g. "HTTP/1.1" .. attribute:: headers `HTTPHeader` dictionary-like object for request headers. Acts like a case-insensitive dictionary with additional methods for repeated headers. .. attribute:: body Request body, if present, as a byte string. .. attribute:: remote_ip Client's IP address as a string. If `HTTPServer.xheaders` is set, will pass along the real IP address provided by a load balancer in the ``X-Real-Ip`` header .. attribute:: protocol The protocol used, either "http" or "https". If `HTTPServer.xheaders` is seet, will pass along the protocol used by a load balancer if reported via an ``X-Scheme`` header. .. attribute:: host The requested hostname, usually taken from the ``Host`` header. .. attribute:: arguments GET/POST arguments are available in the arguments property, which maps arguments names to lists of values (to support multiple values for individual names). Names are of type `str`, while arguments are byte strings. Note that this is different from `RequestHandler.get_argument`, which returns argument values as unicode strings. .. attribute:: files File uploads are available in the files property, which maps file names to lists of :class:`HTTPFile`. .. attribute:: connection An HTTP request is attached to a single HTTP connection, which can be accessed through the "connection" attribute. Since connections are typically kept open in HTTP/1.1, multiple requests can be handled sequentially on a single connection. """ def __init__(self, method, uri, version="HTTP/1.0", headers=None, body=None, remote_ip=None, protocol=None, host=None, files=None, connection=None): self.method = method self.uri = uri self.version = version self.headers = headers or httputil.HTTPHeaders() self.body = body or "" if connection and connection.xheaders: # Squid uses X-Forwarded-For, others use X-Real-Ip self.remote_ip = self.headers.get( "X-Real-Ip", self.headers.get("X-Forwarded-For", remote_ip)) # AWS uses X-Forwarded-Proto self.protocol = self.headers.get( "X-Scheme", self.headers.get("X-Forwarded-Proto", protocol)) if self.protocol not in ("http", "https"): self.protocol = "http" else: self.remote_ip = remote_ip if protocol: self.protocol = protocol elif connection and isinstance(, iostream.SSLIOStream): self.protocol = "https" else: self.protocol = "http" = host or self.headers.get("Host") or "" self.files = files or {} self.connection = connection self._start_time = time.time() self._finish_time = None scheme, netloc, path, query, fragment = urlparse.urlsplit(native_str(uri)) self.path = path self.query = query arguments = parse_qs_bytes(query) self.arguments = {} for name, values in arguments.iteritems(): values = [v for v in values if v] if values: self.arguments[name] = values
[docs] def supports_http_1_1(self): """Returns True if this request supports HTTP/1.1 semantics""" return self.version == "HTTP/1.1"
[docs] def cookies(self): """A dictionary of Cookie.Morsel objects.""" if not hasattr(self, "_cookies"): self._cookies = Cookie.SimpleCookie() if "Cookie" in self.headers: try: self._cookies.load( native_str(self.headers["Cookie"])) except Exception: self._cookies = None return self._cookies
[docs] def write(self, chunk, callback=None): """Writes the given chunk to the response stream.""" assert isinstance(chunk, bytes_type) self.connection.write(chunk, callback=callback)
[docs] def finish(self): """Finishes this HTTP request on the open connection.""" self.connection.finish() self._finish_time = time.time()
[docs] def full_url(self): """Reconstructs the full URL for this request.""" return self.protocol + "://" + + self.uri
[docs] def request_time(self): """Returns the amount of time it took for this request to execute.""" if self._finish_time is None: return time.time() - self._start_time else: return self._finish_time - self._start_time
[docs] def get_ssl_certificate(self): """Returns the client's SSL certificate, if any. To use client certificates, the HTTPServer must have been constructed with cert_reqs set in ssl_options, e.g.:: server = HTTPServer(app, ssl_options=dict( certfile="foo.crt", keyfile="foo.key", cert_reqs=ssl.CERT_REQUIRED, ca_certs="cacert.crt")) The return value is a dictionary, see SSLSocket.getpeercert() in the standard library for more details. """ try: return except ssl.SSLError: return None
def __repr__(self): attrs = ("protocol", "host", "method", "uri", "version", "remote_ip", "body") args = ", ".join(["%s=%r" % (n, getattr(self, n)) for n in attrs]) return "%s(%s, headers=%s)" % ( self.__class__.__name__, args, dict(self.headers))

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