Source code for tornado.websocket

"""Implementation of the WebSocket protocol.

`WebSockets <>`_ allow for bidirectional
communication between the browser and server.

.. warning::

   The WebSocket protocol was recently finalized as `RFC 6455
   <>`_ and is not yet supported in
   all browsers.  Refer to for details
   on compatibility.  In addition, during development the protocol
   went through several incompatible versions, and some browsers only
   support older versions.  By default this module only supports the
   latest version of the protocol, but optional support for an older
   version (known as "draft 76" or "hixie-76") can be enabled by
   overriding `WebSocketHandler.allow_draft76` (see that method's
   documentation for caveats).

from __future__ import absolute_import, division, print_function, with_statement
# Author: Jacob Kristhammar, 2010

import base64
import collections
import functools
import hashlib
import os
import struct
import time
import tornado.escape
import tornado.web

from tornado.concurrent import TracebackFuture
from tornado.escape import utf8, native_str
from tornado import httpclient, httputil
from tornado.ioloop import IOLoop
from tornado.iostream import StreamClosedError
from tornado.log import gen_log, app_log
from tornado.netutil import Resolver
from tornado import simple_httpclient
from tornado.util import bytes_type, unicode_type, _websocket_mask

class WebSocketError(Exception):

[docs]class WebSocketClosedError(WebSocketError): """Raised by operations on a closed connection. .. versionadded:: 3.2 """ pass
[docs]class WebSocketHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler): """Subclass this class to create a basic WebSocket handler. Override `on_message` to handle incoming messages, and use `write_message` to send messages to the client. You can also override `open` and `on_close` to handle opened and closed connections. See for details on the JavaScript interface. The protocol is specified at Here is an example WebSocket handler that echos back all received messages back to the client:: class EchoWebSocket(websocket.WebSocketHandler): def open(self): print "WebSocket opened" def on_message(self, message): self.write_message(u"You said: " + message) def on_close(self): print "WebSocket closed" WebSockets are not standard HTTP connections. The "handshake" is HTTP, but after the handshake, the protocol is message-based. Consequently, most of the Tornado HTTP facilities are not available in handlers of this type. The only communication methods available to you are `write_message()`, `ping()`, and `close()`. Likewise, your request handler class should implement `open()` method rather than ``get()`` or ``post()``. If you map the handler above to ``/websocket`` in your application, you can invoke it in JavaScript with:: var ws = new WebSocket("ws://localhost:8888/websocket"); ws.onopen = function() { ws.send("Hello, world"); }; ws.onmessage = function (evt) { alert(; }; This script pops up an alert box that says "You said: Hello, world". """ def __init__(self, application, request, **kwargs): tornado.web.RequestHandler.__init__(self, application, request, **kwargs) = self.ws_connection = None def _execute(self, transforms, *args, **kwargs): self.open_args = args self.open_kwargs = kwargs # Websocket only supports GET method if self.request.method != 'GET': "HTTP/1.1 405 Method Not Allowed\r\n\r\n" )) return # Upgrade header should be present and should be equal to WebSocket if self.request.headers.get("Upgrade", "").lower() != 'websocket': "HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request\r\n\r\n" "Can \"Upgrade\" only to \"WebSocket\"." )) return # Connection header should be upgrade. Some proxy servers/load balancers # might mess with it. headers = self.request.headers connection = map(lambda s: s.strip().lower(), headers.get("Connection", "").split(",")) if 'upgrade' not in connection: "HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request\r\n\r\n" "\"Connection\" must be \"Upgrade\"." )) return # The difference between version 8 and 13 is that in 8 the # client sends a "Sec-Websocket-Origin" header and in 13 it's # simply "Origin". if self.request.headers.get("Sec-WebSocket-Version") in ("7", "8", "13"): self.ws_connection = WebSocketProtocol13(self) self.ws_connection.accept_connection() elif (self.allow_draft76() and "Sec-WebSocket-Version" not in self.request.headers): self.ws_connection = WebSocketProtocol76(self) self.ws_connection.accept_connection() else: "HTTP/1.1 426 Upgrade Required\r\n" "Sec-WebSocket-Version: 8\r\n\r\n"))
[docs] def write_message(self, message, binary=False): """Sends the given message to the client of this Web Socket. The message may be either a string or a dict (which will be encoded as json). If the ``binary`` argument is false, the message will be sent as utf8; in binary mode any byte string is allowed. If the connection is already closed, raises `WebSocketClosedError`. .. versionchanged:: 3.2 `WebSocketClosedError` was added (previously a closed connection would raise an `AttributeError`) """ if self.ws_connection is None: raise WebSocketClosedError() if isinstance(message, dict): message = tornado.escape.json_encode(message) self.ws_connection.write_message(message, binary=binary)
[docs] def select_subprotocol(self, subprotocols): """Invoked when a new WebSocket requests specific subprotocols. ``subprotocols`` is a list of strings identifying the subprotocols proposed by the client. This method may be overridden to return one of those strings to select it, or ``None`` to not select a subprotocol. Failure to select a subprotocol does not automatically abort the connection, although clients may close the connection if none of their proposed subprotocols was selected. """ return None
[docs] def open(self): """Invoked when a new WebSocket is opened. The arguments to `open` are extracted from the `tornado.web.URLSpec` regular expression, just like the arguments to `tornado.web.RequestHandler.get`. """ pass
[docs] def on_message(self, message): """Handle incoming messages on the WebSocket This method must be overridden. """ raise NotImplementedError
[docs] def ping(self, data): """Send ping frame to the remote end.""" if self.ws_connection is None: raise WebSocketClosedError() self.ws_connection.write_ping(data)
[docs] def on_pong(self, data): """Invoked when the response to a ping frame is received.""" pass
[docs] def on_close(self): """Invoked when the WebSocket is closed.""" pass
[docs] def close(self): """Closes this Web Socket. Once the close handshake is successful the socket will be closed. """ if self.ws_connection: self.ws_connection.close() self.ws_connection = None
[docs] def allow_draft76(self): """Override to enable support for the older "draft76" protocol. The draft76 version of the websocket protocol is disabled by default due to security concerns, but it can be enabled by overriding this method to return True. Connections using the draft76 protocol do not support the ``binary=True`` flag to `write_message`. Support for the draft76 protocol is deprecated and will be removed in a future version of Tornado. """ return False
[docs] def set_nodelay(self, value): """Set the no-delay flag for this stream. By default, small messages may be delayed and/or combined to minimize the number of packets sent. This can sometimes cause 200-500ms delays due to the interaction between Nagle's algorithm and TCP delayed ACKs. To reduce this delay (at the expense of possibly increasing bandwidth usage), call ``self.set_nodelay(True)`` once the websocket connection is established. See `.BaseIOStream.set_nodelay` for additional details. .. versionadded:: 3.1 """
[docs] def get_websocket_scheme(self): """Return the url scheme used for this request, either "ws" or "wss". This is normally decided by HTTPServer, but applications may wish to override this if they are using an SSL proxy that does not provide the X-Scheme header as understood by HTTPServer. Note that this is only used by the draft76 protocol. """ return "wss" if self.request.protocol == "https" else "ws"
[docs] def async_callback(self, callback, *args, **kwargs): """Obsolete - catches exceptions from the wrapped function. This function is normally unncecessary thanks to `tornado.stack_context`. """ return self.ws_connection.async_callback(callback, *args, **kwargs)
def _not_supported(self, *args, **kwargs): raise Exception("Method not supported for Web Sockets") def on_connection_close(self): if self.ws_connection: self.ws_connection.on_connection_close() self.ws_connection = None self.on_close()
for method in ["write", "redirect", "set_header", "send_error", "set_cookie", "set_status", "flush", "finish"]: setattr(WebSocketHandler, method, WebSocketHandler._not_supported) class WebSocketProtocol(object): """Base class for WebSocket protocol versions. """ def __init__(self, handler): self.handler = handler self.request = handler.request = self.client_terminated = False self.server_terminated = False def async_callback(self, callback, *args, **kwargs): """Wrap callbacks with this if they are used on asynchronous requests. Catches exceptions properly and closes this WebSocket if an exception is uncaught. """ if args or kwargs: callback = functools.partial(callback, *args, **kwargs) def wrapper(*args, **kwargs): try: return callback(*args, **kwargs) except Exception: app_log.error("Uncaught exception in %s", self.request.path, exc_info=True) self._abort() return wrapper def on_connection_close(self): self._abort() def _abort(self): """Instantly aborts the WebSocket connection by closing the socket""" self.client_terminated = True self.server_terminated = True # forcibly tear down the connection self.close() # let the subclass cleanup class WebSocketProtocol76(WebSocketProtocol): """Implementation of the WebSockets protocol, version hixie-76. This class provides basic functionality to process WebSockets requests as specified in """ def __init__(self, handler): WebSocketProtocol.__init__(self, handler) self.challenge = None self._waiting = None def accept_connection(self): try: self._handle_websocket_headers() except ValueError: gen_log.debug("Malformed WebSocket request received") self._abort() return scheme = self.handler.get_websocket_scheme() # draft76 only allows a single subprotocol subprotocol_header = '' subprotocol = self.request.headers.get("Sec-WebSocket-Protocol", None) if subprotocol: selected = self.handler.select_subprotocol([subprotocol]) if selected: assert selected == subprotocol subprotocol_header = "Sec-WebSocket-Protocol: %s\r\n" % selected # Write the initial headers before attempting to read the challenge. # This is necessary when using proxies (such as HAProxy), which # need to see the Upgrade headers before passing through the # non-HTTP traffic that follows. "HTTP/1.1 101 WebSocket Protocol Handshake\r\n" "Upgrade: WebSocket\r\n" "Connection: Upgrade\r\n" "Server: TornadoServer/%(version)s\r\n" "Sec-WebSocket-Origin: %(origin)s\r\n" "Sec-WebSocket-Location: %(scheme)s://%(host)s%(uri)s\r\n" "%(subprotocol)s" "\r\n" % (dict( version=tornado.version, origin=self.request.headers["Origin"], scheme=scheme,, uri=self.request.uri, subprotocol=subprotocol_header)))), self._handle_challenge) def challenge_response(self, challenge): """Generates the challenge response that's needed in the handshake The challenge parameter should be the raw bytes as sent from the client. """ key_1 = self.request.headers.get("Sec-Websocket-Key1") key_2 = self.request.headers.get("Sec-Websocket-Key2") try: part_1 = self._calculate_part(key_1) part_2 = self._calculate_part(key_2) except ValueError: raise ValueError("Invalid Keys/Challenge") return self._generate_challenge_response(part_1, part_2, challenge) def _handle_challenge(self, challenge): try: challenge_response = self.challenge_response(challenge) except ValueError: gen_log.debug("Malformed key data in WebSocket request") self._abort() return self._write_response(challenge_response) def _write_response(self, challenge): self.async_callback(*self.handler.open_args, **self.handler.open_kwargs) self._receive_message() def _handle_websocket_headers(self): """Verifies all invariant- and required headers If a header is missing or have an incorrect value ValueError will be raised """ fields = ("Origin", "Host", "Sec-Websocket-Key1", "Sec-Websocket-Key2") if not all(map(lambda f: self.request.headers.get(f), fields)): raise ValueError("Missing/Invalid WebSocket headers") def _calculate_part(self, key): """Processes the key headers and calculates their key value. Raises ValueError when feed invalid key.""" # pyflakes complains about variable reuse if both of these lines use 'c' number = int(''.join(c for c in key if c.isdigit())) spaces = len([c2 for c2 in key if c2.isspace()]) try: key_number = number // spaces except (ValueError, ZeroDivisionError): raise ValueError return struct.pack(">I", key_number) def _generate_challenge_response(self, part_1, part_2, part_3): m = hashlib.md5() m.update(part_1) m.update(part_2) m.update(part_3) return m.digest() def _receive_message(self):, self._on_frame_type) def _on_frame_type(self, byte): frame_type = ord(byte) if frame_type == 0x00:"\xff", self._on_end_delimiter) elif frame_type == 0xff:, self._on_length_indicator) else: self._abort() def _on_end_delimiter(self, frame): if not self.client_terminated: self.async_callback(self.handler.on_message)( frame[:-1].decode("utf-8", "replace")) if not self.client_terminated: self._receive_message() def _on_length_indicator(self, byte): if ord(byte) != 0x00: self._abort() return self.client_terminated = True self.close() def write_message(self, message, binary=False): """Sends the given message to the client of this Web Socket.""" if binary: raise ValueError( "Binary messages not supported by this version of websockets") if isinstance(message, unicode_type): message = message.encode("utf-8") assert isinstance(message, bytes_type)"\x00" + message + b"\xff") def write_ping(self, data): """Send ping frame.""" raise ValueError("Ping messages not supported by this version of websockets") def close(self): """Closes the WebSocket connection.""" if not self.server_terminated: if not"\xff\x00") self.server_terminated = True if self.client_terminated: if self._waiting is not None: self._waiting = None elif self._waiting is None: self._waiting = time.time() + 5, self._abort) class WebSocketProtocol13(WebSocketProtocol): """Implementation of the WebSocket protocol from RFC 6455. This class supports versions 7 and 8 of the protocol in addition to the final version 13. """ def __init__(self, handler, mask_outgoing=False): WebSocketProtocol.__init__(self, handler) self.mask_outgoing = mask_outgoing self._final_frame = False self._frame_opcode = None self._masked_frame = None self._frame_mask = None self._frame_length = None self._fragmented_message_buffer = None self._fragmented_message_opcode = None self._waiting = None def accept_connection(self): try: self._handle_websocket_headers() self._accept_connection() except ValueError: gen_log.debug("Malformed WebSocket request received", exc_info=True) self._abort() return def _handle_websocket_headers(self): """Verifies all invariant- and required headers If a header is missing or have an incorrect value ValueError will be raised """ fields = ("Host", "Sec-Websocket-Key", "Sec-Websocket-Version") if not all(map(lambda f: self.request.headers.get(f), fields)): raise ValueError("Missing/Invalid WebSocket headers") @staticmethod def compute_accept_value(key): """Computes the value for the Sec-WebSocket-Accept header, given the value for Sec-WebSocket-Key. """ sha1 = hashlib.sha1() sha1.update(utf8(key)) sha1.update(b"258EAFA5-E914-47DA-95CA-C5AB0DC85B11") # Magic value return native_str(base64.b64encode(sha1.digest())) def _challenge_response(self): return WebSocketProtocol13.compute_accept_value( self.request.headers.get("Sec-Websocket-Key")) def _accept_connection(self): subprotocol_header = '' subprotocols = self.request.headers.get("Sec-WebSocket-Protocol", '') subprotocols = [s.strip() for s in subprotocols.split(',')] if subprotocols: selected = self.handler.select_subprotocol(subprotocols) if selected: assert selected in subprotocols subprotocol_header = "Sec-WebSocket-Protocol: %s\r\n" % selected "HTTP/1.1 101 Switching Protocols\r\n" "Upgrade: websocket\r\n" "Connection: Upgrade\r\n" "Sec-WebSocket-Accept: %s\r\n" "%s" "\r\n" % (self._challenge_response(), subprotocol_header))) self.async_callback(*self.handler.open_args, **self.handler.open_kwargs) self._receive_frame() def _write_frame(self, fin, opcode, data): if fin: finbit = 0x80 else: finbit = 0 frame = struct.pack("B", finbit | opcode) l = len(data) if self.mask_outgoing: mask_bit = 0x80 else: mask_bit = 0 if l < 126: frame += struct.pack("B", l | mask_bit) elif l <= 0xFFFF: frame += struct.pack("!BH", 126 | mask_bit, l) else: frame += struct.pack("!BQ", 127 | mask_bit, l) if self.mask_outgoing: mask = os.urandom(4) data = mask + _websocket_mask(mask, data) frame += data def write_message(self, message, binary=False): """Sends the given message to the client of this Web Socket.""" if binary: opcode = 0x2 else: opcode = 0x1 message = tornado.escape.utf8(message) assert isinstance(message, bytes_type) try: self._write_frame(True, opcode, message) except StreamClosedError: self._abort() def write_ping(self, data): """Send ping frame.""" assert isinstance(data, bytes_type) self._write_frame(True, 0x9, data) def _receive_frame(self): try:, self._on_frame_start) except StreamClosedError: self._abort() def _on_frame_start(self, data): header, payloadlen = struct.unpack("BB", data) self._final_frame = header & 0x80 reserved_bits = header & 0x70 self._frame_opcode = header & 0xf self._frame_opcode_is_control = self._frame_opcode & 0x8 if reserved_bits: # client is using as-yet-undefined extensions; abort self._abort() return self._masked_frame = bool(payloadlen & 0x80) payloadlen = payloadlen & 0x7f if self._frame_opcode_is_control and payloadlen >= 126: # control frames must have payload < 126 self._abort() return try: if payloadlen < 126: self._frame_length = payloadlen if self._masked_frame:, self._on_masking_key) else:, self._on_frame_data) elif payloadlen == 126:, self._on_frame_length_16) elif payloadlen == 127:, self._on_frame_length_64) except StreamClosedError: self._abort() def _on_frame_length_16(self, data): self._frame_length = struct.unpack("!H", data)[0] try: if self._masked_frame:, self._on_masking_key) else:, self._on_frame_data) except StreamClosedError: self._abort() def _on_frame_length_64(self, data): self._frame_length = struct.unpack("!Q", data)[0] try: if self._masked_frame:, self._on_masking_key) else:, self._on_frame_data) except StreamClosedError: self._abort() def _on_masking_key(self, data): self._frame_mask = data try:, self._on_masked_frame_data) except StreamClosedError: self._abort() def _on_masked_frame_data(self, data): self._on_frame_data(_websocket_mask(self._frame_mask, data)) def _on_frame_data(self, data): if self._frame_opcode_is_control: # control frames may be interleaved with a series of fragmented # data frames, so control frames must not interact with # self._fragmented_* if not self._final_frame: # control frames must not be fragmented self._abort() return opcode = self._frame_opcode elif self._frame_opcode == 0: # continuation frame if self._fragmented_message_buffer is None: # nothing to continue self._abort() return self._fragmented_message_buffer += data if self._final_frame: opcode = self._fragmented_message_opcode data = self._fragmented_message_buffer self._fragmented_message_buffer = None else: # start of new data message if self._fragmented_message_buffer is not None: # can't start new message until the old one is finished self._abort() return if self._final_frame: opcode = self._frame_opcode else: self._fragmented_message_opcode = self._frame_opcode self._fragmented_message_buffer = data if self._final_frame: self._handle_message(opcode, data) if not self.client_terminated: self._receive_frame() def _handle_message(self, opcode, data): if self.client_terminated: return if opcode == 0x1: # UTF-8 data try: decoded = data.decode("utf-8") except UnicodeDecodeError: self._abort() return self.async_callback(self.handler.on_message)(decoded) elif opcode == 0x2: # Binary data self.async_callback(self.handler.on_message)(data) elif opcode == 0x8: # Close self.client_terminated = True self.close() elif opcode == 0x9: # Ping self._write_frame(True, 0xA, data) elif opcode == 0xA: # Pong self.async_callback(self.handler.on_pong)(data) else: self._abort() def close(self): """Closes the WebSocket connection.""" if not self.server_terminated: if not self._write_frame(True, 0x8, b"") self.server_terminated = True if self.client_terminated: if self._waiting is not None: self._waiting = None elif self._waiting is None: # Give the client a few seconds to complete a clean shutdown, # otherwise just close the connection. self._waiting = + 5, self._abort)
[docs]class WebSocketClientConnection(simple_httpclient._HTTPConnection): """WebSocket client connection. This class should not be instantiated directly; use the `websocket_connect` function instead. """ def __init__(self, io_loop, request): self.connect_future = TracebackFuture() self.read_future = None self.read_queue = collections.deque() self.key = base64.b64encode(os.urandom(16)) scheme, sep, rest = request.url.partition(':') scheme = {'ws': 'http', 'wss': 'https'}[scheme] request.url = scheme + sep + rest request.headers.update({ 'Upgrade': 'websocket', 'Connection': 'Upgrade', 'Sec-WebSocket-Key': self.key, 'Sec-WebSocket-Version': '13', }) self.resolver = Resolver(io_loop=io_loop) super(WebSocketClientConnection, self).__init__( io_loop, None, request, lambda: None, self._on_http_response, 104857600, self.resolver)
[docs] def close(self): """Closes the websocket connection. .. versionadded:: 3.2 """ if self.protocol is not None: self.protocol.close() self.protocol = None
def _on_close(self): self.on_message(None) self.resolver.close() super(WebSocketClientConnection, self)._on_close() def _on_http_response(self, response): if not self.connect_future.done(): if response.error: self.connect_future.set_exception(response.error) else: self.connect_future.set_exception(WebSocketError( "Non-websocket response")) def _handle_1xx(self, code): assert code == 101 assert self.headers['Upgrade'].lower() == 'websocket' assert self.headers['Connection'].lower() == 'upgrade' accept = WebSocketProtocol13.compute_accept_value(self.key) assert self.headers['Sec-Websocket-Accept'] == accept self.protocol = WebSocketProtocol13(self, mask_outgoing=True) self.protocol._receive_frame() if self._timeout is not None: self.io_loop.remove_timeout(self._timeout) self._timeout = None self.connect_future.set_result(self)
[docs] def write_message(self, message, binary=False): """Sends a message to the WebSocket server.""" self.protocol.write_message(message, binary)
[docs] def read_message(self, callback=None): """Reads a message from the WebSocket server. Returns a future whose result is the message, or None if the connection is closed. If a callback argument is given it will be called with the future when it is ready. """ assert self.read_future is None future = TracebackFuture() if self.read_queue: future.set_result(self.read_queue.popleft()) else: self.read_future = future if callback is not None: self.io_loop.add_future(future, callback) return future
def on_message(self, message): if self.read_future is not None: self.read_future.set_result(message) self.read_future = None else: self.read_queue.append(message) def on_pong(self, data): pass
[docs]def websocket_connect(url, io_loop=None, callback=None, connect_timeout=None): """Client-side websocket support. Takes a url and returns a Future whose result is a `WebSocketClientConnection`. .. versionchanged:: 3.2 Also accepts ``HTTPRequest`` objects in place of urls. """ if io_loop is None: io_loop = IOLoop.current() if isinstance(url, httpclient.HTTPRequest): assert connect_timeout is None request = url # Copy and convert the headers dict/object (see comments in # AsyncHTTPClient.fetch) request.headers = httputil.HTTPHeaders(request.headers) else: request = httpclient.HTTPRequest(url, connect_timeout=connect_timeout) request = httpclient._RequestProxy( request, httpclient.HTTPRequest._DEFAULTS) conn = WebSocketClientConnection(io_loop, request) if callback is not None: io_loop.add_future(conn.connect_future, callback) return conn.connect_future