tornado.httputil — Manipulate HTTP headers and URLs

HTTP utility code shared by clients and servers.

class tornado.httputil.HTTPHeaders(*args, **kwargs)[source]

A dictionary that maintains Http-Header-Case for all keys.

Supports multiple values per key via a pair of new methods, add() and get_list(). The regular dictionary interface returns a single value per key, with multiple values joined by a comma.

>>> h = HTTPHeaders({"content-type": "text/html"})
>>> list(h.keys())
>>> h["Content-Type"]
>>> h.add("Set-Cookie", "A=B")
>>> h.add("Set-Cookie", "C=D")
>>> h["set-cookie"]
>>> h.get_list("set-cookie")
['A=B', 'C=D']
>>> for (k,v) in sorted(h.get_all()):
...    print('%s: %s' % (k,v))
Content-Type: text/html
Set-Cookie: A=B
Set-Cookie: C=D
add(name, value)[source]

Adds a new value for the given key.


Returns all values for the given header as a list.


Returns an iterable of all (name, value) pairs.

If a header has multiple values, multiple pairs will be returned with the same name.


Updates the dictionary with a single header line.

>>> h = HTTPHeaders()
>>> h.parse_line("Content-Type: text/html")
>>> h.get('content-type')
classmethod parse(headers)[source]

Returns a dictionary from HTTP header text.

>>> h = HTTPHeaders.parse("Content-Type: text/html\r\nContent-Length: 42\r\n")
>>> sorted(h.items())
[('Content-Length', '42'), ('Content-Type', 'text/html')]
tornado.httputil.url_concat(url, args)[source]

Concatenate url and argument dictionary regardless of whether url has existing query parameters.

>>> url_concat("", dict(c="d"))
class tornado.httputil.HTTPFile[source]

Represents a file uploaded via a form.

For backwards compatibility, its instance attributes are also accessible as dictionary keys.

  • filename
  • body
  • content_type
tornado.httputil.parse_body_arguments(content_type, body, arguments, files)[source]

Parses a form request body.

Supports application/x-www-form-urlencoded and multipart/form-data. The content_type parameter should be a string and body should be a byte string. The arguments and files parameters are dictionaries that will be updated with the parsed contents.

tornado.httputil.parse_multipart_form_data(boundary, data, arguments, files)[source]

Parses a multipart/form-data body.

The boundary and data parameters are both byte strings. The dictionaries given in the arguments and files parameters will be updated with the contents of the body.


Formats a timestamp in the format used by HTTP.

The argument may be a numeric timestamp as returned by time.time, a time tuple as returned by time.gmtime, or a datetime.datetime object.

>>> format_timestamp(1359312200)
'Sun, 27 Jan 2013 18:43:20 GMT'