Source code for tornado.httputil

#!/usr/bin/env python
# Copyright 2009 Facebook
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may
# not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain
# a copy of the License at
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
# WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
# License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.

"""HTTP utility code shared by clients and servers.

This module also defines the `HTTPServerRequest` class which is exposed
via `tornado.web.RequestHandler.request`.

from __future__ import absolute_import, division, print_function

import calendar
import collections
import copy
import datetime
import email.utils
import numbers
import re
import time

from tornado.escape import native_str, parse_qs_bytes, utf8
from tornado.log import gen_log
from tornado.util import ObjectDict, PY3

if PY3:
    import http.cookies as Cookie
    from http.client import responses
    from urllib.parse import urlencode, urlparse, urlunparse, parse_qsl
    import Cookie
    from httplib import responses
    from urllib import urlencode
    from urlparse import urlparse, urlunparse, parse_qsl

# responses is unused in this file, but we re-export it to other files.
# Reference it so pyflakes doesn't complain.

    from ssl import SSLError
except ImportError:
    # ssl is unavailable on app engine.
    class _SSLError(Exception):
    # Hack around a mypy limitation. We can't simply put "type: ignore"
    # on the class definition itself; must go through an assignment.
    SSLError = _SSLError  # type: ignore

    import typing
except ImportError:

# RFC 7230 section 3.5: a recipient MAY recognize a single LF as a line
# terminator and ignore any preceding CR.
_CRLF_RE = re.compile(r'\r?\n')

class _NormalizedHeaderCache(dict):
    """Dynamic cached mapping of header names to Http-Header-Case.

    Implemented as a dict subclass so that cache hits are as fast as a
    normal dict lookup, without the overhead of a python function

    >>> normalized_headers = _NormalizedHeaderCache(10)
    >>> normalized_headers["coNtent-TYPE"]
    def __init__(self, size):
        super(_NormalizedHeaderCache, self).__init__()
        self.size = size
        self.queue = collections.deque()

    def __missing__(self, key):
        normalized = "-".join([w.capitalize() for w in key.split("-")])
        self[key] = normalized
        if len(self.queue) > self.size:
            # Limit the size of the cache.  LRU would be better, but this
            # simpler approach should be fine.  In Python 2.7+ we could
            # use OrderedDict (or in 3.2+, @functools.lru_cache).
            old_key = self.queue.popleft()
            del self[old_key]
        return normalized

_normalized_headers = _NormalizedHeaderCache(1000)

[docs]class HTTPHeaders(collections.MutableMapping): """A dictionary that maintains ``Http-Header-Case`` for all keys. Supports multiple values per key via a pair of new methods, `add()` and `get_list()`. The regular dictionary interface returns a single value per key, with multiple values joined by a comma. >>> h = HTTPHeaders({"content-type": "text/html"}) >>> list(h.keys()) ['Content-Type'] >>> h["Content-Type"] 'text/html' >>> h.add("Set-Cookie", "A=B") >>> h.add("Set-Cookie", "C=D") >>> h["set-cookie"] 'A=B,C=D' >>> h.get_list("set-cookie") ['A=B', 'C=D'] >>> for (k,v) in sorted(h.get_all()): ... print('%s: %s' % (k,v)) ... Content-Type: text/html Set-Cookie: A=B Set-Cookie: C=D """ def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs): self._dict = {} # type: typing.Dict[str, str] self._as_list = {} # type: typing.Dict[str, typing.List[str]] self._last_key = None if (len(args) == 1 and len(kwargs) == 0 and isinstance(args[0], HTTPHeaders)): # Copy constructor for k, v in args[0].get_all(): self.add(k, v) else: # Dict-style initialization self.update(*args, **kwargs) # new public methods
[docs] def add(self, name, value): # type: (str, str) -> None """Adds a new value for the given key.""" norm_name = _normalized_headers[name] self._last_key = norm_name if norm_name in self: self._dict[norm_name] = (native_str(self[norm_name]) + ',' + native_str(value)) self._as_list[norm_name].append(value) else: self[norm_name] = value
[docs] def get_list(self, name): """Returns all values for the given header as a list.""" norm_name = _normalized_headers[name] return self._as_list.get(norm_name, [])
[docs] def get_all(self): # type: () -> typing.Iterable[typing.Tuple[str, str]] """Returns an iterable of all (name, value) pairs. If a header has multiple values, multiple pairs will be returned with the same name. """ for name, values in self._as_list.items(): for value in values: yield (name, value)
[docs] def parse_line(self, line): """Updates the dictionary with a single header line. >>> h = HTTPHeaders() >>> h.parse_line("Content-Type: text/html") >>> h.get('content-type') 'text/html' """ if line[0].isspace(): # continuation of a multi-line header new_part = ' ' + line.lstrip() self._as_list[self._last_key][-1] += new_part self._dict[self._last_key] += new_part else: name, value = line.split(":", 1) self.add(name, value.strip())
[docs] @classmethod def parse(cls, headers): """Returns a dictionary from HTTP header text. >>> h = HTTPHeaders.parse("Content-Type: text/html\\r\\nContent-Length: 42\\r\\n") >>> sorted(h.items()) [('Content-Length', '42'), ('Content-Type', 'text/html')] """ h = cls() for line in _CRLF_RE.split(headers): if line: h.parse_line(line) return h
# MutableMapping abstract method implementations. def __setitem__(self, name, value): norm_name = _normalized_headers[name] self._dict[norm_name] = value self._as_list[norm_name] = [value] def __getitem__(self, name): # type: (str) -> str return self._dict[_normalized_headers[name]] def __delitem__(self, name): norm_name = _normalized_headers[name] del self._dict[norm_name] del self._as_list[norm_name] def __len__(self): return len(self._dict) def __iter__(self): return iter(self._dict) def copy(self): # defined in dict but not in MutableMapping. return HTTPHeaders(self) # Use our overridden copy method for the copy.copy module. # This makes shallow copies one level deeper, but preserves # the appearance that HTTPHeaders is a single container. __copy__ = copy def __str__(self): lines = [] for name, value in self.get_all(): lines.append("%s: %s\n" % (name, value)) return "".join(lines) __unicode__ = __str__
[docs]class HTTPServerRequest(object): """A single HTTP request. All attributes are type `str` unless otherwise noted. .. attribute:: method HTTP request method, e.g. "GET" or "POST" .. attribute:: uri The requested uri. .. attribute:: path The path portion of `uri` .. attribute:: query The query portion of `uri` .. attribute:: version HTTP version specified in request, e.g. "HTTP/1.1" .. attribute:: headers `.HTTPHeaders` dictionary-like object for request headers. Acts like a case-insensitive dictionary with additional methods for repeated headers. .. attribute:: body Request body, if present, as a byte string. .. attribute:: remote_ip Client's IP address as a string. If ``HTTPServer.xheaders`` is set, will pass along the real IP address provided by a load balancer in the ``X-Real-Ip`` or ``X-Forwarded-For`` header. .. versionchanged:: 3.1 The list format of ``X-Forwarded-For`` is now supported. .. attribute:: protocol The protocol used, either "http" or "https". If ``HTTPServer.xheaders`` is set, will pass along the protocol used by a load balancer if reported via an ``X-Scheme`` header. .. attribute:: host The requested hostname, usually taken from the ``Host`` header. .. attribute:: arguments GET/POST arguments are available in the arguments property, which maps arguments names to lists of values (to support multiple values for individual names). Names are of type `str`, while arguments are byte strings. Note that this is different from `.RequestHandler.get_argument`, which returns argument values as unicode strings. .. attribute:: query_arguments Same format as ``arguments``, but contains only arguments extracted from the query string. .. versionadded:: 3.2 .. attribute:: body_arguments Same format as ``arguments``, but contains only arguments extracted from the request body. .. versionadded:: 3.2 .. attribute:: files File uploads are available in the files property, which maps file names to lists of `.HTTPFile`. .. attribute:: connection An HTTP request is attached to a single HTTP connection, which can be accessed through the "connection" attribute. Since connections are typically kept open in HTTP/1.1, multiple requests can be handled sequentially on a single connection. .. versionchanged:: 4.0 Moved from ``tornado.httpserver.HTTPRequest``. """ def __init__(self, method=None, uri=None, version="HTTP/1.0", headers=None, body=None, host=None, files=None, connection=None, start_line=None, server_connection=None): if start_line is not None: method, uri, version = start_line self.method = method self.uri = uri self.version = version self.headers = headers or HTTPHeaders() self.body = body or b"" # set remote IP and protocol context = getattr(connection, 'context', None) self.remote_ip = getattr(context, 'remote_ip', None) self.protocol = getattr(context, 'protocol', "http") = host or self.headers.get("Host") or "" self.host_name = split_host_and_port([0] self.files = files or {} self.connection = connection self.server_connection = server_connection self._start_time = time.time() self._finish_time = None self.path, sep, self.query = uri.partition('?') self.arguments = parse_qs_bytes(self.query, keep_blank_values=True) self.query_arguments = copy.deepcopy(self.arguments) self.body_arguments = {}
[docs] def supports_http_1_1(self): """Returns True if this request supports HTTP/1.1 semantics. .. deprecated:: 4.0 Applications are less likely to need this information with the introduction of `.HTTPConnection`. If you still need it, access the ``version`` attribute directly. """ return self.version == "HTTP/1.1"
@property def cookies(self): """A dictionary of Cookie.Morsel objects.""" if not hasattr(self, "_cookies"): self._cookies = Cookie.SimpleCookie() if "Cookie" in self.headers: try: parsed = parse_cookie(self.headers["Cookie"]) except Exception: pass else: for k, v in parsed.items(): try: self._cookies[k] = v except Exception: # SimpleCookie imposes some restrictions on keys; # parse_cookie does not. Discard any cookies # with disallowed keys. pass return self._cookies
[docs] def write(self, chunk, callback=None): """Writes the given chunk to the response stream. .. deprecated:: 4.0 Use ``request.connection`` and the `.HTTPConnection` methods to write the response. """ assert isinstance(chunk, bytes) assert self.version.startswith("HTTP/1."), \ "deprecated interface only supported in HTTP/1.x" self.connection.write(chunk, callback=callback)
[docs] def finish(self): """Finishes this HTTP request on the open connection. .. deprecated:: 4.0 Use ``request.connection`` and the `.HTTPConnection` methods to write the response. """ self.connection.finish() self._finish_time = time.time()
[docs] def full_url(self): """Reconstructs the full URL for this request.""" return self.protocol + "://" + + self.uri
[docs] def request_time(self): """Returns the amount of time it took for this request to execute.""" if self._finish_time is None: return time.time() - self._start_time else: return self._finish_time - self._start_time
[docs] def get_ssl_certificate(self, binary_form=False): """Returns the client's SSL certificate, if any. To use client certificates, the HTTPServer's `ssl.SSLContext.verify_mode` field must be set, e.g.:: ssl_ctx = ssl.create_default_context(ssl.Purpose.CLIENT_AUTH) ssl_ctx.load_cert_chain("foo.crt", "foo.key") ssl_ctx.load_verify_locations("cacerts.pem") ssl_ctx.verify_mode = ssl.CERT_REQUIRED server = HTTPServer(app, ssl_options=ssl_ctx) By default, the return value is a dictionary (or None, if no client certificate is present). If ``binary_form`` is true, a DER-encoded form of the certificate is returned instead. See SSLSocket.getpeercert() in the standard library for more details. """ try: return binary_form=binary_form) except SSLError: return None
def _parse_body(self): parse_body_arguments( self.headers.get("Content-Type", ""), self.body, self.body_arguments, self.files, self.headers) for k, v in self.body_arguments.items(): self.arguments.setdefault(k, []).extend(v) def __repr__(self): attrs = ("protocol", "host", "method", "uri", "version", "remote_ip") args = ", ".join(["%s=%r" % (n, getattr(self, n)) for n in attrs]) return "%s(%s, headers=%s)" % ( self.__class__.__name__, args, dict(self.headers))
[docs]class HTTPInputError(Exception): """Exception class for malformed HTTP requests or responses from remote sources. .. versionadded:: 4.0 """ pass
[docs]class HTTPOutputError(Exception): """Exception class for errors in HTTP output. .. versionadded:: 4.0 """ pass
[docs]class HTTPServerConnectionDelegate(object): """Implement this interface to handle requests from `.HTTPServer`. .. versionadded:: 4.0 """
[docs] def start_request(self, server_conn, request_conn): """This method is called by the server when a new request has started. :arg server_conn: is an opaque object representing the long-lived (e.g. tcp-level) connection. :arg request_conn: is a `.HTTPConnection` object for a single request/response exchange. This method should return a `.HTTPMessageDelegate`. """ raise NotImplementedError()
[docs] def on_close(self, server_conn): """This method is called when a connection has been closed. :arg server_conn: is a server connection that has previously been passed to ``start_request``. """ pass
[docs]class HTTPMessageDelegate(object): """Implement this interface to handle an HTTP request or response. .. versionadded:: 4.0 """
[docs] def headers_received(self, start_line, headers): """Called when the HTTP headers have been received and parsed. :arg start_line: a `.RequestStartLine` or `.ResponseStartLine` depending on whether this is a client or server message. :arg headers: a `.HTTPHeaders` instance. Some `.HTTPConnection` methods can only be called during ``headers_received``. May return a `.Future`; if it does the body will not be read until it is done. """ pass
[docs] def data_received(self, chunk): """Called when a chunk of data has been received. May return a `.Future` for flow control. """ pass
[docs] def finish(self): """Called after the last chunk of data has been received.""" pass
[docs] def on_connection_close(self): """Called if the connection is closed without finishing the request. If ``headers_received`` is called, either ``finish`` or ``on_connection_close`` will be called, but not both. """ pass
[docs]class HTTPConnection(object): """Applications use this interface to write their responses. .. versionadded:: 4.0 """
[docs] def write_headers(self, start_line, headers, chunk=None, callback=None): """Write an HTTP header block. :arg start_line: a `.RequestStartLine` or `.ResponseStartLine`. :arg headers: a `.HTTPHeaders` instance. :arg chunk: the first (optional) chunk of data. This is an optimization so that small responses can be written in the same call as their headers. :arg callback: a callback to be run when the write is complete. The ``version`` field of ``start_line`` is ignored. Returns a `.Future` if no callback is given. """ raise NotImplementedError()
[docs] def write(self, chunk, callback=None): """Writes a chunk of body data. The callback will be run when the write is complete. If no callback is given, returns a Future. """ raise NotImplementedError()
[docs] def finish(self): """Indicates that the last body data has been written. """ raise NotImplementedError()
[docs]def url_concat(url, args): """Concatenate url and arguments regardless of whether url has existing query parameters. ``args`` may be either a dictionary or a list of key-value pairs (the latter allows for multiple values with the same key. >>> url_concat("", dict(c="d")) '' >>> url_concat("", dict(c="d")) '' >>> url_concat("", [("c", "d"), ("c", "d2")]) '' """ if args is None: return url parsed_url = urlparse(url) if isinstance(args, dict): parsed_query = parse_qsl(parsed_url.query, keep_blank_values=True) parsed_query.extend(args.items()) elif isinstance(args, list) or isinstance(args, tuple): parsed_query = parse_qsl(parsed_url.query, keep_blank_values=True) parsed_query.extend(args) else: err = "'args' parameter should be dict, list or tuple. Not {0}".format( type(args)) raise TypeError(err) final_query = urlencode(parsed_query) url = urlunparse(( parsed_url[0], parsed_url[1], parsed_url[2], parsed_url[3], final_query, parsed_url[5])) return url
[docs]class HTTPFile(ObjectDict): """Represents a file uploaded via a form. For backwards compatibility, its instance attributes are also accessible as dictionary keys. * ``filename`` * ``body`` * ``content_type`` """ pass
def _parse_request_range(range_header): """Parses a Range header. Returns either ``None`` or tuple ``(start, end)``. Note that while the HTTP headers use inclusive byte positions, this method returns indexes suitable for use in slices. >>> start, end = _parse_request_range("bytes=1-2") >>> start, end (1, 3) >>> [0, 1, 2, 3, 4][start:end] [1, 2] >>> _parse_request_range("bytes=6-") (6, None) >>> _parse_request_range("bytes=-6") (-6, None) >>> _parse_request_range("bytes=-0") (None, 0) >>> _parse_request_range("bytes=") (None, None) >>> _parse_request_range("foo=42") >>> _parse_request_range("bytes=1-2,6-10") Note: only supports one range (ex, ``bytes=1-2,6-10`` is not allowed). See [0] for the details of the range header. [0]: """ unit, _, value = range_header.partition("=") unit, value = unit.strip(), value.strip() if unit != "bytes": return None start_b, _, end_b = value.partition("-") try: start = _int_or_none(start_b) end = _int_or_none(end_b) except ValueError: return None if end is not None: if start is None: if end != 0: start = -end end = None else: end += 1 return (start, end) def _get_content_range(start, end, total): """Returns a suitable Content-Range header: >>> print(_get_content_range(None, 1, 4)) bytes 0-0/4 >>> print(_get_content_range(1, 3, 4)) bytes 1-2/4 >>> print(_get_content_range(None, None, 4)) bytes 0-3/4 """ start = start or 0 end = (end or total) - 1 return "bytes %s-%s/%s" % (start, end, total) def _int_or_none(val): val = val.strip() if val == "": return None return int(val)
[docs]def parse_body_arguments(content_type, body, arguments, files, headers=None): """Parses a form request body. Supports ``application/x-www-form-urlencoded`` and ``multipart/form-data``. The ``content_type`` parameter should be a string and ``body`` should be a byte string. The ``arguments`` and ``files`` parameters are dictionaries that will be updated with the parsed contents. """ if headers and 'Content-Encoding' in headers: gen_log.warning("Unsupported Content-Encoding: %s", headers['Content-Encoding']) return if content_type.startswith("application/x-www-form-urlencoded"): try: uri_arguments = parse_qs_bytes(native_str(body), keep_blank_values=True) except Exception as e: gen_log.warning('Invalid x-www-form-urlencoded body: %s', e) uri_arguments = {} for name, values in uri_arguments.items(): if values: arguments.setdefault(name, []).extend(values) elif content_type.startswith("multipart/form-data"): try: fields = content_type.split(";") for field in fields: k, sep, v = field.strip().partition("=") if k == "boundary" and v: parse_multipart_form_data(utf8(v), body, arguments, files) break else: raise ValueError("multipart boundary not found") except Exception as e: gen_log.warning("Invalid multipart/form-data: %s", e)
[docs]def parse_multipart_form_data(boundary, data, arguments, files): """Parses a ``multipart/form-data`` body. The ``boundary`` and ``data`` parameters are both byte strings. The dictionaries given in the arguments and files parameters will be updated with the contents of the body. """ # The standard allows for the boundary to be quoted in the header, # although it's rare (it happens at least for google app engine # xmpp). I think we're also supposed to handle backslash-escapes # here but I'll save that until we see a client that uses them # in the wild. if boundary.startswith(b'"') and boundary.endswith(b'"'): boundary = boundary[1:-1] final_boundary_index = data.rfind(b"--" + boundary + b"--") if final_boundary_index == -1: gen_log.warning("Invalid multipart/form-data: no final boundary") return parts = data[:final_boundary_index].split(b"--" + boundary + b"\r\n") for part in parts: if not part: continue eoh = part.find(b"\r\n\r\n") if eoh == -1: gen_log.warning("multipart/form-data missing headers") continue headers = HTTPHeaders.parse(part[:eoh].decode("utf-8")) disp_header = headers.get("Content-Disposition", "") disposition, disp_params = _parse_header(disp_header) if disposition != "form-data" or not part.endswith(b"\r\n"): gen_log.warning("Invalid multipart/form-data") continue value = part[eoh + 4:-2] if not disp_params.get("name"): gen_log.warning("multipart/form-data value missing name") continue name = disp_params["name"] if disp_params.get("filename"): ctype = headers.get("Content-Type", "application/unknown") files.setdefault(name, []).append(HTTPFile( # type: ignore filename=disp_params["filename"], body=value, content_type=ctype)) else: arguments.setdefault(name, []).append(value)
[docs]def format_timestamp(ts): """Formats a timestamp in the format used by HTTP. The argument may be a numeric timestamp as returned by `time.time`, a time tuple as returned by `time.gmtime`, or a `datetime.datetime` object. >>> format_timestamp(1359312200) 'Sun, 27 Jan 2013 18:43:20 GMT' """ if isinstance(ts, numbers.Real): pass elif isinstance(ts, (tuple, time.struct_time)): ts = calendar.timegm(ts) elif isinstance(ts, datetime.datetime): ts = calendar.timegm(ts.utctimetuple()) else: raise TypeError("unknown timestamp type: %r" % ts) return email.utils.formatdate(ts, usegmt=True)
RequestStartLine = collections.namedtuple( 'RequestStartLine', ['method', 'path', 'version'])
[docs]def parse_request_start_line(line): """Returns a (method, path, version) tuple for an HTTP 1.x request line. The response is a `collections.namedtuple`. >>> parse_request_start_line("GET /foo HTTP/1.1") RequestStartLine(method='GET', path='/foo', version='HTTP/1.1') """ try: method, path, version = line.split(" ") except ValueError: raise HTTPInputError("Malformed HTTP request line") if not re.match(r"^HTTP/1\.[0-9]$", version): raise HTTPInputError( "Malformed HTTP version in HTTP Request-Line: %r" % version) return RequestStartLine(method, path, version)
ResponseStartLine = collections.namedtuple( 'ResponseStartLine', ['version', 'code', 'reason'])
[docs]def parse_response_start_line(line): """Returns a (version, code, reason) tuple for an HTTP 1.x response line. The response is a `collections.namedtuple`. >>> parse_response_start_line("HTTP/1.1 200 OK") ResponseStartLine(version='HTTP/1.1', code=200, reason='OK') """ line = native_str(line) match = re.match("(HTTP/1.[0-9]) ([0-9]+) ([^\r]*)", line) if not match: raise HTTPInputError("Error parsing response start line") return ResponseStartLine(, int(,
# _parseparam and _parse_header are copied and modified from python2.7's # The original 2.7 version of this code did not correctly support some # combinations of semicolons and double quotes. # It has also been modified to support valueless parameters as seen in # websocket extension negotiations. def _parseparam(s): while s[:1] == ';': s = s[1:] end = s.find(';') while end > 0 and (s.count('"', 0, end) - s.count('\\"', 0, end)) % 2: end = s.find(';', end + 1) if end < 0: end = len(s) f = s[:end] yield f.strip() s = s[end:] def _parse_header(line): """Parse a Content-type like header. Return the main content-type and a dictionary of options. """ parts = _parseparam(';' + line) key = next(parts) pdict = {} for p in parts: i = p.find('=') if i >= 0: name = p[:i].strip().lower() value = p[i + 1:].strip() if len(value) >= 2 and value[0] == value[-1] == '"': value = value[1:-1] value = value.replace('\\\\', '\\').replace('\\"', '"') pdict[name] = value else: pdict[p] = None return key, pdict def _encode_header(key, pdict): """Inverse of _parse_header. >>> _encode_header('permessage-deflate', ... {'client_max_window_bits': 15, 'client_no_context_takeover': None}) 'permessage-deflate; client_max_window_bits=15; client_no_context_takeover' """ if not pdict: return key out = [key] # Sort the parameters just to make it easy to test. for k, v in sorted(pdict.items()): if v is None: out.append(k) else: # TODO: quote if necessary. out.append('%s=%s' % (k, v)) return '; '.join(out) def doctests(): import doctest return doctest.DocTestSuite()
[docs]def split_host_and_port(netloc): """Returns ``(host, port)`` tuple from ``netloc``. Returned ``port`` will be ``None`` if not present. .. versionadded:: 4.1 """ match = re.match(r'^(.+):(\d+)$', netloc) if match: host = port = int( else: host = netloc port = None return (host, port)
_OctalPatt = re.compile(r"\\[0-3][0-7][0-7]") _QuotePatt = re.compile(r"[\\].") _nulljoin = ''.join def _unquote_cookie(str): """Handle double quotes and escaping in cookie values. This method is copied verbatim from the Python 3.5 standard library (http.cookies._unquote) so we don't have to depend on non-public interfaces. """ # If there aren't any doublequotes, # then there can't be any special characters. See RFC 2109. if str is None or len(str) < 2: return str if str[0] != '"' or str[-1] != '"': return str # We have to assume that we must decode this string. # Down to work. # Remove the "s str = str[1:-1] # Check for special sequences. Examples: # \012 --> \n # \" --> " # i = 0 n = len(str) res = [] while 0 <= i < n: o_match =, i) q_match =, i) if not o_match and not q_match: # Neither matched res.append(str[i:]) break # else: j = k = -1 if o_match: j = o_match.start(0) if q_match: k = q_match.start(0) if q_match and (not o_match or k < j): # QuotePatt matched res.append(str[i:k]) res.append(str[k + 1]) i = k + 2 else: # OctalPatt matched res.append(str[i:j]) res.append(chr(int(str[j + 1:j + 4], 8))) i = j + 4 return _nulljoin(res)