Source code for tornado.http1connection

#!/usr/bin/env python
# Copyright 2014 Facebook
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may
# not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain
# a copy of the License at
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
# WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
# License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.

"""Client and server implementations of HTTP/1.x.

.. versionadded:: 4.0

from __future__ import absolute_import, division, print_function

import re

from tornado.concurrent import Future
from tornado.escape import native_str, utf8
from tornado import gen
from tornado import httputil
from tornado import iostream
from tornado.log import gen_log, app_log
from tornado import stack_context
from tornado.util import GzipDecompressor, PY3

class _QuietException(Exception):
    def __init__(self):

class _ExceptionLoggingContext(object):
    """Used with the ``with`` statement when calling delegate methods to
    log any exceptions with the given logger.  Any exceptions caught are
    converted to _QuietException
    def __init__(self, logger):
        self.logger = logger

    def __enter__(self):

    def __exit__(self, typ, value, tb):
        if value is not None:
            self.logger.error("Uncaught exception", exc_info=(typ, value, tb))
            raise _QuietException

[docs]class HTTP1ConnectionParameters(object): """Parameters for `.HTTP1Connection` and `.HTTP1ServerConnection`. """ def __init__(self, no_keep_alive=False, chunk_size=None, max_header_size=None, header_timeout=None, max_body_size=None, body_timeout=None, decompress=False): """ :arg bool no_keep_alive: If true, always close the connection after one request. :arg int chunk_size: how much data to read into memory at once :arg int max_header_size: maximum amount of data for HTTP headers :arg float header_timeout: how long to wait for all headers (seconds) :arg int max_body_size: maximum amount of data for body :arg float body_timeout: how long to wait while reading body (seconds) :arg bool decompress: if true, decode incoming ``Content-Encoding: gzip`` """ self.no_keep_alive = no_keep_alive self.chunk_size = chunk_size or 65536 self.max_header_size = max_header_size or 65536 self.header_timeout = header_timeout self.max_body_size = max_body_size self.body_timeout = body_timeout self.decompress = decompress
[docs]class HTTP1Connection(httputil.HTTPConnection): """Implements the HTTP/1.x protocol. This class can be on its own for clients, or via `HTTP1ServerConnection` for servers. """ def __init__(self, stream, is_client, params=None, context=None): """ :arg stream: an `.IOStream` :arg bool is_client: client or server :arg params: a `.HTTP1ConnectionParameters` instance or ``None`` :arg context: an opaque application-defined object that can be accessed as ``connection.context``. """ self.is_client = is_client = stream if params is None: params = HTTP1ConnectionParameters() self.params = params self.context = context self.no_keep_alive = params.no_keep_alive # The body limits can be altered by the delegate, so save them # here instead of just referencing self.params later. self._max_body_size = (self.params.max_body_size or self._body_timeout = self.params.body_timeout # _write_finished is set to True when finish() has been called, # i.e. there will be no more data sent. Data may still be in the # stream's write buffer. self._write_finished = False # True when we have read the entire incoming body. self._read_finished = False # _finish_future resolves when all data has been written and flushed # to the IOStream. self._finish_future = Future() # If true, the connection should be closed after this request # (after the response has been written in the server side, # and after it has been read in the client) self._disconnect_on_finish = False self._clear_callbacks() # Save the start lines after we read or write them; they # affect later processing (e.g. 304 responses and HEAD methods # have content-length but no bodies) self._request_start_line = None self._response_start_line = None self._request_headers = None # True if we are writing output with chunked encoding. self._chunking_output = None # While reading a body with a content-length, this is the # amount left to read. self._expected_content_remaining = None # A Future for our outgoing writes, returned by IOStream.write. self._pending_write = None
[docs] def read_response(self, delegate): """Read a single HTTP response. Typical client-mode usage is to write a request using `write_headers`, `write`, and `finish`, and then call ``read_response``. :arg delegate: a `.HTTPMessageDelegate` Returns a `.Future` that resolves to None after the full response has been read. """ if self.params.decompress: delegate = _GzipMessageDelegate(delegate, self.params.chunk_size) return self._read_message(delegate)
@gen.coroutine def _read_message(self, delegate): need_delegate_close = False try: header_future = b"\r?\n\r?\n", max_bytes=self.params.max_header_size) if self.params.header_timeout is None: header_data = yield header_future else: try: header_data = yield gen.with_timeout( + self.params.header_timeout, header_future, quiet_exceptions=iostream.StreamClosedError) except gen.TimeoutError: self.close() raise gen.Return(False) start_line, headers = self._parse_headers(header_data) if self.is_client: start_line = httputil.parse_response_start_line(start_line) self._response_start_line = start_line else: start_line = httputil.parse_request_start_line(start_line) self._request_start_line = start_line self._request_headers = headers self._disconnect_on_finish = not self._can_keep_alive( start_line, headers) need_delegate_close = True with _ExceptionLoggingContext(app_log): header_future = delegate.headers_received(start_line, headers) if header_future is not None: yield header_future if is None: # We've been detached. need_delegate_close = False raise gen.Return(False) skip_body = False if self.is_client: if (self._request_start_line is not None and self._request_start_line.method == 'HEAD'): skip_body = True code = start_line.code if code == 304: # 304 responses may include the content-length header # but do not actually have a body. # skip_body = True if code >= 100 and code < 200: # 1xx responses should never indicate the presence of # a body. if ('Content-Length' in headers or 'Transfer-Encoding' in headers): raise httputil.HTTPInputError( "Response code %d cannot have body" % code) # TODO: client delegates will get headers_received twice # in the case of a 100-continue. Document or change? yield self._read_message(delegate) else: if (headers.get("Expect") == "100-continue" and not self._write_finished):"HTTP/1.1 100 (Continue)\r\n\r\n") if not skip_body: body_future = self._read_body( start_line.code if self.is_client else 0, headers, delegate) if body_future is not None: if self._body_timeout is None: yield body_future else: try: yield gen.with_timeout( + self._body_timeout, body_future, quiet_exceptions=iostream.StreamClosedError) except gen.TimeoutError:"Timeout reading body from %s", self.context) raise gen.Return(False) self._read_finished = True if not self._write_finished or self.is_client: need_delegate_close = False with _ExceptionLoggingContext(app_log): delegate.finish() # If we're waiting for the application to produce an asynchronous # response, and we're not detached, register a close callback # on the stream (we didn't need one while we were reading) if (not self._finish_future.done() and is not None and not yield self._finish_future if self.is_client and self._disconnect_on_finish: self.close() if is None: raise gen.Return(False) except httputil.HTTPInputError as e:"Malformed HTTP message from %s: %s", self.context, e) if not self.is_client: yield'HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request\r\n\r\n') self.close() raise gen.Return(False) finally: if need_delegate_close: with _ExceptionLoggingContext(app_log): delegate.on_connection_close() header_future = None self._clear_callbacks() raise gen.Return(True) def _clear_callbacks(self): """Clears the callback attributes. This allows the request handler to be garbage collected more quickly in CPython by breaking up reference cycles. """ self._write_callback = None self._write_future = None self._close_callback = None if is not None:
[docs] def set_close_callback(self, callback): """Sets a callback that will be run when the connection is closed. .. deprecated:: 4.0 Use `.HTTPMessageDelegate.on_connection_close` instead. """ self._close_callback = stack_context.wrap(callback)
def _on_connection_close(self): # Note that this callback is only registered on the IOStream # when we have finished reading the request and are waiting for # the application to produce its response. if self._close_callback is not None: callback = self._close_callback self._close_callback = None callback() if not self._finish_future.done(): self._finish_future.set_result(None) self._clear_callbacks() def close(self): if is not None: self._clear_callbacks() if not self._finish_future.done(): self._finish_future.set_result(None)
[docs] def detach(self): """Take control of the underlying stream. Returns the underlying `.IOStream` object and stops all further HTTP processing. May only be called during `.HTTPMessageDelegate.headers_received`. Intended for implementing protocols like websockets that tunnel over an HTTP handshake. """ self._clear_callbacks() stream = = None if not self._finish_future.done(): self._finish_future.set_result(None) return stream
[docs] def set_body_timeout(self, timeout): """Sets the body timeout for a single request. Overrides the value from `.HTTP1ConnectionParameters`. """ self._body_timeout = timeout
[docs] def set_max_body_size(self, max_body_size): """Sets the body size limit for a single request. Overrides the value from `.HTTP1ConnectionParameters`. """ self._max_body_size = max_body_size
[docs] def write_headers(self, start_line, headers, chunk=None, callback=None): """Implements `.HTTPConnection.write_headers`.""" lines = [] if self.is_client: self._request_start_line = start_line lines.append(utf8('%s %s HTTP/1.1' % (start_line[0], start_line[1]))) # Client requests with a non-empty body must have either a # Content-Length or a Transfer-Encoding. self._chunking_output = ( start_line.method in ('POST', 'PUT', 'PATCH') and 'Content-Length' not in headers and 'Transfer-Encoding' not in headers) else: self._response_start_line = start_line lines.append(utf8('HTTP/1.1 %d %s' % (start_line[1], start_line[2]))) self._chunking_output = ( # TODO: should this use # self._request_start_line.version or # start_line.version? self._request_start_line.version == 'HTTP/1.1' and # 304 responses have no body (not even a zero-length body), and so # should not have either Content-Length or Transfer-Encoding. # headers. start_line.code not in (204, 304) and # No need to chunk the output if a Content-Length is specified. 'Content-Length' not in headers and # Applications are discouraged from touching Transfer-Encoding, # but if they do, leave it alone. 'Transfer-Encoding' not in headers) # If connection to a 1.1 client will be closed, inform client if (self._request_start_line.version == 'HTTP/1.1' and self._disconnect_on_finish): headers['Connection'] = 'close' # If a 1.0 client asked for keep-alive, add the header. if (self._request_start_line.version == 'HTTP/1.0' and (self._request_headers.get('Connection', '').lower() == 'keep-alive')): headers['Connection'] = 'Keep-Alive' if self._chunking_output: headers['Transfer-Encoding'] = 'chunked' if (not self.is_client and (self._request_start_line.method == 'HEAD' or start_line.code == 304)): self._expected_content_remaining = 0 elif 'Content-Length' in headers: self._expected_content_remaining = int(headers['Content-Length']) else: self._expected_content_remaining = None # TODO: headers are supposed to be of type str, but we still have some # cases that let bytes slip through. Remove these native_str calls when those # are fixed. header_lines = (native_str(n) + ": " + native_str(v) for n, v in headers.get_all()) if PY3: lines.extend(l.encode('latin1') for l in header_lines) else: lines.extend(header_lines) for line in lines: if b'\n' in line: raise ValueError('Newline in header: ' + repr(line)) future = None if future = self._write_future = Future() future.set_exception(iostream.StreamClosedError()) future.exception() else: if callback is not None: self._write_callback = stack_context.wrap(callback) else: future = self._write_future = Future() data = b"\r\n".join(lines) + b"\r\n\r\n" if chunk: data += self._format_chunk(chunk) self._pending_write = self._pending_write.add_done_callback(self._on_write_complete) return future
def _format_chunk(self, chunk): if self._expected_content_remaining is not None: self._expected_content_remaining -= len(chunk) if self._expected_content_remaining < 0: # Close the stream now to stop further framing errors. raise httputil.HTTPOutputError( "Tried to write more data than Content-Length") if self._chunking_output and chunk: # Don't write out empty chunks because that means END-OF-STREAM # with chunked encoding return utf8("%x" % len(chunk)) + b"\r\n" + chunk + b"\r\n" else: return chunk
[docs] def write(self, chunk, callback=None): """Implements `.HTTPConnection.write`. For backwards compatibility it is allowed but deprecated to skip `write_headers` and instead call `write()` with a pre-encoded header block. """ future = None if future = self._write_future = Future() self._write_future.set_exception(iostream.StreamClosedError()) self._write_future.exception() else: if callback is not None: self._write_callback = stack_context.wrap(callback) else: future = self._write_future = Future() self._pending_write = self._pending_write.add_done_callback(self._on_write_complete) return future
[docs] def finish(self): """Implements `.HTTPConnection.finish`.""" if (self._expected_content_remaining is not None and self._expected_content_remaining != 0 and not raise httputil.HTTPOutputError( "Tried to write %d bytes less than Content-Length" % self._expected_content_remaining) if self._chunking_output: if not self._pending_write ="0\r\n\r\n") self._pending_write.add_done_callback(self._on_write_complete) self._write_finished = True # If the app finished the request while we're still reading, # divert any remaining data away from the delegate and # close the connection when we're done sending our response. # Closing the connection is the only way to avoid reading the # whole input body. if not self._read_finished: self._disconnect_on_finish = True # No more data is coming, so instruct TCP to send any remaining # data immediately instead of waiting for a full packet or ack. if self._pending_write is None: self._finish_request(None) else: self._pending_write.add_done_callback(self._finish_request)
def _on_write_complete(self, future): exc = future.exception() if exc is not None and not isinstance(exc, iostream.StreamClosedError): future.result() if self._write_callback is not None: callback = self._write_callback self._write_callback = None if self._write_future is not None: future = self._write_future self._write_future = None future.set_result(None) def _can_keep_alive(self, start_line, headers): if self.params.no_keep_alive: return False connection_header = headers.get("Connection") if connection_header is not None: connection_header = connection_header.lower() if start_line.version == "HTTP/1.1": return connection_header != "close" elif ("Content-Length" in headers or headers.get("Transfer-Encoding", "").lower() == "chunked" or getattr(start_line, 'method', None) in ("HEAD", "GET")): # start_line may be a request or response start line; only # the former has a method attribute. return connection_header == "keep-alive" return False def _finish_request(self, future): self._clear_callbacks() if not self.is_client and self._disconnect_on_finish: self.close() return # Turn Nagle's algorithm back on, leaving the stream in its # default state for the next request. if not self._finish_future.done(): self._finish_future.set_result(None) def _parse_headers(self, data): # The lstrip removes newlines that some implementations sometimes # insert between messages of a reused connection. Per RFC 7230, # we SHOULD ignore at least one empty line before the request. # data = native_str(data.decode('latin1')).lstrip("\r\n") # RFC 7230 section allows for both CRLF and bare LF. eol = data.find("\n") start_line = data[:eol].rstrip("\r") try: headers = httputil.HTTPHeaders.parse(data[eol:]) except ValueError: # probably form split() if there was no ':' in the line raise httputil.HTTPInputError("Malformed HTTP headers: %r" % data[eol:100]) return start_line, headers def _read_body(self, code, headers, delegate): if "Content-Length" in headers: if "Transfer-Encoding" in headers: # Response cannot contain both Content-Length and # Transfer-Encoding headers. # raise httputil.HTTPInputError( "Response with both Transfer-Encoding and Content-Length") if "," in headers["Content-Length"]: # Proxies sometimes cause Content-Length headers to get # duplicated. If all the values are identical then we can # use them but if they differ it's an error. pieces = re.split(r',\s*', headers["Content-Length"]) if any(i != pieces[0] for i in pieces): raise httputil.HTTPInputError( "Multiple unequal Content-Lengths: %r" % headers["Content-Length"]) headers["Content-Length"] = pieces[0] try: content_length = int(headers["Content-Length"]) except ValueError: # Handles non-integer Content-Length value. raise httputil.HTTPInputError( "Only integer Content-Length is allowed: %s" % headers["Content-Length"]) if content_length > self._max_body_size: raise httputil.HTTPInputError("Content-Length too long") else: content_length = None if code == 204: # This response code is not allowed to have a non-empty body, # and has an implicit length of zero instead of read-until-close. # if ("Transfer-Encoding" in headers or content_length not in (None, 0)): raise httputil.HTTPInputError( "Response with code %d should not have body" % code) content_length = 0 if content_length is not None: return self._read_fixed_body(content_length, delegate) if headers.get("Transfer-Encoding", "").lower() == "chunked": return self._read_chunked_body(delegate) if self.is_client: return self._read_body_until_close(delegate) return None @gen.coroutine def _read_fixed_body(self, content_length, delegate): while content_length > 0: body = yield min(self.params.chunk_size, content_length), partial=True) content_length -= len(body) if not self._write_finished or self.is_client: with _ExceptionLoggingContext(app_log): ret = delegate.data_received(body) if ret is not None: yield ret @gen.coroutine def _read_chunked_body(self, delegate): # TODO: "chunk extensions" total_size = 0 while True: chunk_len = yield"\r\n", max_bytes=64) chunk_len = int(chunk_len.strip(), 16) if chunk_len == 0: return total_size += chunk_len if total_size > self._max_body_size: raise httputil.HTTPInputError("chunked body too large") bytes_to_read = chunk_len while bytes_to_read: chunk = yield min(bytes_to_read, self.params.chunk_size), partial=True) bytes_to_read -= len(chunk) if not self._write_finished or self.is_client: with _ExceptionLoggingContext(app_log): ret = delegate.data_received(chunk) if ret is not None: yield ret # chunk ends with \r\n crlf = yield assert crlf == b"\r\n" @gen.coroutine def _read_body_until_close(self, delegate): body = yield if not self._write_finished or self.is_client: with _ExceptionLoggingContext(app_log): delegate.data_received(body)
class _GzipMessageDelegate(httputil.HTTPMessageDelegate): """Wraps an `HTTPMessageDelegate` to decode ``Content-Encoding: gzip``. """ def __init__(self, delegate, chunk_size): self._delegate = delegate self._chunk_size = chunk_size self._decompressor = None def headers_received(self, start_line, headers): if headers.get("Content-Encoding") == "gzip": self._decompressor = GzipDecompressor() # Downstream delegates will only see uncompressed data, # so rename the content-encoding header. # (but note that curl_httpclient doesn't do this). headers.add("X-Consumed-Content-Encoding", headers["Content-Encoding"]) del headers["Content-Encoding"] return self._delegate.headers_received(start_line, headers) @gen.coroutine def data_received(self, chunk): if self._decompressor: compressed_data = chunk while compressed_data: decompressed = self._decompressor.decompress( compressed_data, self._chunk_size) if decompressed: ret = self._delegate.data_received(decompressed) if ret is not None: yield ret compressed_data = self._decompressor.unconsumed_tail else: ret = self._delegate.data_received(chunk) if ret is not None: yield ret def finish(self): if self._decompressor is not None: tail = self._decompressor.flush() if tail: # I believe the tail will always be empty (i.e. # decompress will return all it can). The purpose # of the flush call is to detect errors such # as truncated input. But in case it ever returns # anything, treat it as an extra chunk self._delegate.data_received(tail) return self._delegate.finish() def on_connection_close(self): return self._delegate.on_connection_close()
[docs]class HTTP1ServerConnection(object): """An HTTP/1.x server.""" def __init__(self, stream, params=None, context=None): """ :arg stream: an `.IOStream` :arg params: a `.HTTP1ConnectionParameters` or None :arg context: an opaque application-defined object that is accessible as ``connection.context`` """ = stream if params is None: params = HTTP1ConnectionParameters() self.params = params self.context = context self._serving_future = None @gen.coroutine
[docs] def close(self): """Closes the connection. Returns a `.Future` that resolves after the serving loop has exited. """ # Block until the serving loop is done, but ignore any exceptions # (start_serving is already responsible for logging them). try: yield self._serving_future except Exception: pass
[docs] def start_serving(self, delegate): """Starts serving requests on this connection. :arg delegate: a `.HTTPServerConnectionDelegate` """ assert isinstance(delegate, httputil.HTTPServerConnectionDelegate) self._serving_future = self._server_request_loop(delegate) # Register the future on the IOLoop so its errors get logged., lambda f: f.result())
@gen.coroutine def _server_request_loop(self, delegate): try: while True: conn = HTTP1Connection(, False, self.params, self.context) request_delegate = delegate.start_request(self, conn) try: ret = yield conn.read_response(request_delegate) except (iostream.StreamClosedError, iostream.UnsatisfiableReadError): return except _QuietException: # This exception was already logged. conn.close() return except Exception: gen_log.error("Uncaught exception", exc_info=True) conn.close() return if not ret: return yield gen.moment finally: delegate.on_close(self)