Source code for tornado.util

"""Miscellaneous utility functions and classes.

This module is used internally by Tornado.  It is not necessarily expected
that the functions and classes defined here will be useful to other
applications, but they are documented here in case they are.

The one public-facing part of this module is the `Configurable` class
and its `~Configurable.configure` method, which becomes a part of the
interface of its subclasses, including `.AsyncHTTPClient`, `.IOLoop`,
and `.Resolver`.

from __future__ import absolute_import, division, print_function, with_statement

import array
import os
import sys
import zlib

PY3 = sys.version_info >= (3,)

if PY3:
    xrange = range

# inspect.getargspec() raises DeprecationWarnings in Python 3.5.
# The two functions have compatible interfaces for the parts we need.
if PY3:
    from inspect import getfullargspec as getargspec
    from inspect import getargspec

# Aliases for types that are spelled differently in different Python
# versions. bytes_type is deprecated and no longer used in Tornado
# itself but is left in case anyone outside Tornado is using it.
unicode_type = type(u'')
bytes_type = bytes
if PY3:
    basestring_type = str
    # The name basestring doesn't exist in py3 so silence flake8.
    basestring_type = basestring  # noqa

[docs]class ObjectDict(dict): """Makes a dictionary behave like an object, with attribute-style access. """ def __getattr__(self, name): try: return self[name] except KeyError: raise AttributeError(name) def __setattr__(self, name, value): self[name] = value
[docs]class GzipDecompressor(object): """Streaming gzip decompressor. The interface is like that of `zlib.decompressobj` (without some of the optional arguments, but it understands gzip headers and checksums. """ def __init__(self): # Magic parameter makes zlib module understand gzip header # # This works on cpython and pypy, but not jython. self.decompressobj = zlib.decompressobj(16 + zlib.MAX_WBITS)
[docs] def decompress(self, value, max_length=None): """Decompress a chunk, returning newly-available data. Some data may be buffered for later processing; `flush` must be called when there is no more input data to ensure that all data was processed. If ``max_length`` is given, some input data may be left over in ``unconsumed_tail``; you must retrieve this value and pass it back to a future call to `decompress` if it is not empty. """ return self.decompressobj.decompress(value, max_length)
@property def unconsumed_tail(self): """Returns the unconsumed portion left over """ return self.decompressobj.unconsumed_tail
[docs] def flush(self): """Return any remaining buffered data not yet returned by decompress. Also checks for errors such as truncated input. No other methods may be called on this object after `flush`. """ return self.decompressobj.flush()
[docs]def import_object(name): """Imports an object by name. import_object('x') is equivalent to 'import x'. import_object('x.y.z') is equivalent to 'from x.y import z'. >>> import tornado.escape >>> import_object('tornado.escape') is tornado.escape True >>> import_object('tornado.escape.utf8') is tornado.escape.utf8 True >>> import_object('tornado') is tornado True >>> import_object('tornado.missing_module') Traceback (most recent call last): ... ImportError: No module named missing_module """ if isinstance(name, unicode_type) and str is not unicode_type: # On python 2 a byte string is required. name = name.encode('utf-8') if name.count('.') == 0: return __import__(name, None, None) parts = name.split('.') obj = __import__('.'.join(parts[:-1]), None, None, [parts[-1]], 0) try: return getattr(obj, parts[-1]) except AttributeError: raise ImportError("No module named %s" % parts[-1])
# Stubs to make mypy happy (and later for actual type-checking). def raise_exc_info(exc_info): pass def exec_in(code, glob, loc=None): pass if PY3: exec(""" def raise_exc_info(exc_info): raise exc_info[1].with_traceback(exc_info[2]) def exec_in(code, glob, loc=None): if isinstance(code, str): code = compile(code, '<string>', 'exec', dont_inherit=True) exec(code, glob, loc) """) else: exec(""" def raise_exc_info(exc_info): raise exc_info[0], exc_info[1], exc_info[2] def exec_in(code, glob, loc=None): if isinstance(code, basestring): # exec(string) inherits the caller's future imports; compile # the string first to prevent that. code = compile(code, '<string>', 'exec', dont_inherit=True) exec code in glob, loc """)
[docs]def errno_from_exception(e): """Provides the errno from an Exception object. There are cases that the errno attribute was not set so we pull the errno out of the args but if someone instantiates an Exception without any args you will get a tuple error. So this function abstracts all that behavior to give you a safe way to get the errno. """ if hasattr(e, 'errno'): return e.errno elif e.args: return e.args[0] else: return None
[docs]class Configurable(object): """Base class for configurable interfaces. A configurable interface is an (abstract) class whose constructor acts as a factory function for one of its implementation subclasses. The implementation subclass as well as optional keyword arguments to its initializer can be set globally at runtime with `configure`. By using the constructor as the factory method, the interface looks like a normal class, `isinstance` works as usual, etc. This pattern is most useful when the choice of implementation is likely to be a global decision (e.g. when `~select.epoll` is available, always use it instead of ``), or when a previously-monolithic class has been split into specialized subclasses. Configurable subclasses must define the class methods `configurable_base` and `configurable_default`, and use the instance method `initialize` instead of ``__init__``. """ __impl_class = None # type: type __impl_kwargs = None # type: dict def __new__(cls, *args, **kwargs): base = cls.configurable_base() init_kwargs = {} if cls is base: impl = cls.configured_class() if base.__impl_kwargs: init_kwargs.update(base.__impl_kwargs) else: impl = cls init_kwargs.update(kwargs) instance = super(Configurable, cls).__new__(impl) # initialize vs __init__ chosen for compatibility with AsyncHTTPClient # singleton magic. If we get rid of that we can switch to __init__ # here too. instance.initialize(*args, **init_kwargs) return instance @classmethod
[docs] def configurable_base(cls): """Returns the base class of a configurable hierarchy. This will normally return the class in which it is defined. (which is *not* necessarily the same as the cls classmethod parameter). """ raise NotImplementedError()
[docs] def configurable_default(cls): """Returns the implementation class to be used if none is configured.""" raise NotImplementedError()
[docs] def initialize(self): """Initialize a `Configurable` subclass instance. Configurable classes should use `initialize` instead of ``__init__``. .. versionchanged:: 4.2 Now accepts positional arguments in addition to keyword arguments. """
[docs] def configure(cls, impl, **kwargs): """Sets the class to use when the base class is instantiated. Keyword arguments will be saved and added to the arguments passed to the constructor. This can be used to set global defaults for some parameters. """ base = cls.configurable_base() if isinstance(impl, (unicode_type, bytes)): impl = import_object(impl) if impl is not None and not issubclass(impl, cls): raise ValueError("Invalid subclass of %s" % cls) base.__impl_class = impl base.__impl_kwargs = kwargs
[docs] def configured_class(cls): """Returns the currently configured class.""" base = cls.configurable_base() if cls.__impl_class is None: base.__impl_class = cls.configurable_default() return base.__impl_class
@classmethod def _save_configuration(cls): base = cls.configurable_base() return (base.__impl_class, base.__impl_kwargs) @classmethod def _restore_configuration(cls, saved): base = cls.configurable_base() base.__impl_class = saved[0] base.__impl_kwargs = saved[1]
[docs]class ArgReplacer(object): """Replaces one value in an ``args, kwargs`` pair. Inspects the function signature to find an argument by name whether it is passed by position or keyword. For use in decorators and similar wrappers. """ def __init__(self, func, name): = name try: self.arg_pos = self._getargnames(func).index(name) except ValueError: # Not a positional parameter self.arg_pos = None def _getargnames(self, func): try: return getargspec(func).args except TypeError: if hasattr(func, 'func_code'): # Cython-generated code has all the attributes needed # by inspect.getargspec, but the inspect module only # works with ordinary functions. Inline the portion of # getargspec that we need here. Note that for static # functions the @cython.binding(True) decorator must # be used (for methods it works out of the box). code = func.func_code return code.co_varnames[:code.co_argcount] raise
[docs] def get_old_value(self, args, kwargs, default=None): """Returns the old value of the named argument without replacing it. Returns ``default`` if the argument is not present. """ if self.arg_pos is not None and len(args) > self.arg_pos: return args[self.arg_pos] else: return kwargs.get(, default)
[docs] def replace(self, new_value, args, kwargs): """Replace the named argument in ``args, kwargs`` with ``new_value``. Returns ``(old_value, args, kwargs)``. The returned ``args`` and ``kwargs`` objects may not be the same as the input objects, or the input objects may be mutated. If the named argument was not found, ``new_value`` will be added to ``kwargs`` and None will be returned as ``old_value``. """ if self.arg_pos is not None and len(args) > self.arg_pos: # The arg to replace is passed positionally old_value = args[self.arg_pos] args = list(args) # *args is normally a tuple args[self.arg_pos] = new_value else: # The arg to replace is either omitted or passed by keyword. old_value = kwargs.get( kwargs[] = new_value return old_value, args, kwargs
[docs]def timedelta_to_seconds(td): """Equivalent to td.total_seconds() (introduced in python 2.7).""" return (td.microseconds + (td.seconds + td.days * 24 * 3600) * 10 ** 6) / float(10 ** 6)
def _websocket_mask_python(mask, data): """Websocket masking function. `mask` is a `bytes` object of length 4; `data` is a `bytes` object of any length. Returns a `bytes` object of the same length as `data` with the mask applied as specified in section 5.3 of RFC 6455. This pure-python implementation may be replaced by an optimized version when available. """ mask = array.array("B", mask) unmasked = array.array("B", data) for i in xrange(len(data)): unmasked[i] = unmasked[i] ^ mask[i % 4] if hasattr(unmasked, 'tobytes'): # tostring was deprecated in py32. It hasn't been removed, # but since we turn on deprecation warnings in our tests # we need to use the right one. return unmasked.tobytes() else: return unmasked.tostring() if (os.environ.get('TORNADO_NO_EXTENSION') or os.environ.get('TORNADO_EXTENSION') == '0'): # These environment variables exist to make it easier to do performance # comparisons; they are not guaranteed to remain supported in the future. _websocket_mask = _websocket_mask_python else: try: from tornado.speedups import websocket_mask as _websocket_mask except ImportError: if os.environ.get('TORNADO_EXTENSION') == '1': raise _websocket_mask = _websocket_mask_python def doctests(): import doctest return doctest.DocTestSuite()