Source code for tornado.gen

"""``tornado.gen`` is a generator-based interface to make it easier to
work in an asynchronous environment.  Code using the ``gen`` module
is technically asynchronous, but it is written as a single generator
instead of a collection of separate functions.

For example, the following asynchronous handler::

    class AsyncHandler(RequestHandler):
        @asynchronous
        def get(self):
            http_client = AsyncHTTPClient()
            http_client.fetch("http://example.com",
                              callback=self.on_fetch)

        def on_fetch(self, response):
            do_something_with_response(response)
            self.render("template.html")

could be written with ``gen`` as::

    class GenAsyncHandler(RequestHandler):
        @gen.coroutine
        def get(self):
            http_client = AsyncHTTPClient()
            response = yield http_client.fetch("http://example.com")
            do_something_with_response(response)
            self.render("template.html")

Most asynchronous functions in Tornado return a `.Future`;
yielding this object returns its `~.Future.result`.

For functions that do not return ``Futures``, `Task` works with any
function that takes a ``callback`` keyword argument (most Tornado functions
can be used in either style, although the ``Future`` style is preferred
since it is both shorter and provides better exception handling)::

    @gen.coroutine
    def get(self):
        yield gen.Task(AsyncHTTPClient().fetch, "http://example.com")

You can also yield a list or dict of ``Futures`` and/or ``Tasks``, which will be
started at the same time and run in parallel; a list or dict of results will
be returned when they are all finished::

    @gen.coroutine
    def get(self):
        http_client = AsyncHTTPClient()
        response1, response2 = yield [http_client.fetch(url1),
                                      http_client.fetch(url2)]
        response_dict = yield dict(response3=http_client.fetch(url3),
                                   response4=http_client.fetch(url4))
        response3 = response_dict['response3']
        response4 = response_dict['response4']

.. versionchanged:: 3.2
   Dict support added.

For more complicated interfaces, `Task` can be split into two parts:
`Callback` and `Wait`::

    class GenAsyncHandler2(RequestHandler):
        @gen.coroutine
        def get(self):
            http_client = AsyncHTTPClient()
            http_client.fetch("http://example.com",
                              callback=(yield gen.Callback("key")))
            response = yield gen.Wait("key")
            do_something_with_response(response)
            self.render("template.html")

The ``key`` argument to `Callback` and `Wait` allows for multiple
asynchronous operations to be started at different times and proceed
in parallel: yield several callbacks with different keys, then wait
for them once all the async operations have started.

The result of a `Wait` or `Task` yield expression depends on how the callback
was run.  If it was called with no arguments, the result is ``None``.  If
it was called with one argument, the result is that argument.  If it was
called with more than one argument or any keyword arguments, the result
is an `Arguments` object, which is a named tuple ``(args, kwargs)``.
"""
from __future__ import absolute_import, division, print_function, with_statement

import collections
import functools
import itertools
import sys
import types

from tornado.concurrent import Future, TracebackFuture
from tornado.ioloop import IOLoop
from tornado.stack_context import ExceptionStackContext, wrap


class KeyReuseError(Exception):
    pass


class UnknownKeyError(Exception):
    pass


class LeakedCallbackError(Exception):
    pass


class BadYieldError(Exception):
    pass


class ReturnValueIgnoredError(Exception):
    pass


[docs]def engine(func): """Callback-oriented decorator for asynchronous generators. This is an older interface; for new code that does not need to be compatible with versions of Tornado older than 3.0 the `coroutine` decorator is recommended instead. This decorator is similar to `coroutine`, except it does not return a `.Future` and the ``callback`` argument is not treated specially. In most cases, functions decorated with `engine` should take a ``callback`` argument and invoke it with their result when they are finished. One notable exception is the `~tornado.web.RequestHandler` :ref:`HTTP verb methods <verbs>`, which use ``self.finish()`` in place of a callback argument. """ @functools.wraps(func) def wrapper(*args, **kwargs): runner = None def handle_exception(typ, value, tb): # if the function throws an exception before its first "yield" # (or is not a generator at all), the Runner won't exist yet. # However, in that case we haven't reached anything asynchronous # yet, so we can just let the exception propagate. if runner is not None: return runner.handle_exception(typ, value, tb) return False with ExceptionStackContext(handle_exception) as deactivate: try: result = func(*args, **kwargs) except (Return, StopIteration) as e: result = getattr(e, 'value', None) else: if isinstance(result, types.GeneratorType): def final_callback(value): if value is not None: raise ReturnValueIgnoredError( "@gen.engine functions cannot return values: " "%r" % (value,)) assert value is None deactivate() runner = Runner(result, final_callback) runner.run() return if result is not None: raise ReturnValueIgnoredError( "@gen.engine functions cannot return values: %r" % (result,)) deactivate() # no yield, so we're done return wrapper
[docs]def coroutine(func): """Decorator for asynchronous generators. Any generator that yields objects from this module must be wrapped in either this decorator or `engine`. Coroutines may "return" by raising the special exception `Return(value) <Return>`. In Python 3.3+, it is also possible for the function to simply use the ``return value`` statement (prior to Python 3.3 generators were not allowed to also return values). In all versions of Python a coroutine that simply wishes to exit early may use the ``return`` statement without a value. Functions with this decorator return a `.Future`. Additionally, they may be called with a ``callback`` keyword argument, which will be invoked with the future's result when it resolves. If the coroutine fails, the callback will not be run and an exception will be raised into the surrounding `.StackContext`. The ``callback`` argument is not visible inside the decorated function; it is handled by the decorator itself. From the caller's perspective, ``@gen.coroutine`` is similar to the combination of ``@return_future`` and ``@gen.engine``. """ @functools.wraps(func) def wrapper(*args, **kwargs): runner = None future = TracebackFuture() if 'callback' in kwargs: callback = kwargs.pop('callback') IOLoop.current().add_future( future, lambda future: callback(future.result())) def handle_exception(typ, value, tb): try: if runner is not None and runner.handle_exception(typ, value, tb): return True except Exception: typ, value, tb = sys.exc_info() future.set_exc_info((typ, value, tb)) return True with ExceptionStackContext(handle_exception) as deactivate: try: result = func(*args, **kwargs) except (Return, StopIteration) as e: result = getattr(e, 'value', None) except Exception: deactivate() future.set_exc_info(sys.exc_info()) return future else: if isinstance(result, types.GeneratorType): def final_callback(value): deactivate() future.set_result(value) runner = Runner(result, final_callback) runner.run() return future deactivate() future.set_result(result) return future return wrapper
[docs]class Return(Exception): """Special exception to return a value from a `coroutine`. If this exception is raised, its value argument is used as the result of the coroutine:: @gen.coroutine def fetch_json(url): response = yield AsyncHTTPClient().fetch(url) raise gen.Return(json_decode(response.body)) In Python 3.3, this exception is no longer necessary: the ``return`` statement can be used directly to return a value (previously ``yield`` and ``return`` with a value could not be combined in the same function). By analogy with the return statement, the value argument is optional, but it is never necessary to ``raise gen.Return()``. The ``return`` statement can be used with no arguments instead. """ def __init__(self, value=None): super(Return, self).__init__() self.value = value
[docs]class YieldPoint(object): """Base class for objects that may be yielded from the generator. Applications do not normally need to use this class, but it may be subclassed to provide additional yielding behavior. """
[docs] def start(self, runner): """Called by the runner after the generator has yielded. No other methods will be called on this object before ``start``. """ raise NotImplementedError()
[docs] def is_ready(self): """Called by the runner to determine whether to resume the generator. Returns a boolean; may be called more than once. """ raise NotImplementedError()
[docs] def get_result(self): """Returns the value to use as the result of the yield expression. This method will only be called once, and only after `is_ready` has returned true. """ raise NotImplementedError()
[docs]class Callback(YieldPoint): """Returns a callable object that will allow a matching `Wait` to proceed. The key may be any value suitable for use as a dictionary key, and is used to match ``Callbacks`` to their corresponding ``Waits``. The key must be unique among outstanding callbacks within a single run of the generator function, but may be reused across different runs of the same function (so constants generally work fine). The callback may be called with zero or one arguments; if an argument is given it will be returned by `Wait`. """ def __init__(self, key): self.key = key def start(self, runner): self.runner = runner runner.register_callback(self.key) def is_ready(self): return True def get_result(self): return self.runner.result_callback(self.key)
[docs]class Wait(YieldPoint): """Returns the argument passed to the result of a previous `Callback`.""" def __init__(self, key): self.key = key def start(self, runner): self.runner = runner def is_ready(self): return self.runner.is_ready(self.key) def get_result(self): return self.runner.pop_result(self.key)
[docs]class WaitAll(YieldPoint): """Returns the results of multiple previous `Callbacks <Callback>`. The argument is a sequence of `Callback` keys, and the result is a list of results in the same order. `WaitAll` is equivalent to yielding a list of `Wait` objects. """ def __init__(self, keys): self.keys = keys def start(self, runner): self.runner = runner def is_ready(self): return all(self.runner.is_ready(key) for key in self.keys) def get_result(self): return [self.runner.pop_result(key) for key in self.keys]
[docs]class Task(YieldPoint): """Runs a single asynchronous operation. Takes a function (and optional additional arguments) and runs it with those arguments plus a ``callback`` keyword argument. The argument passed to the callback is returned as the result of the yield expression. A `Task` is equivalent to a `Callback`/`Wait` pair (with a unique key generated automatically):: result = yield gen.Task(func, args) func(args, callback=(yield gen.Callback(key))) result = yield gen.Wait(key) """ def __init__(self, func, *args, **kwargs): assert "callback" not in kwargs self.args = args self.kwargs = kwargs self.func = func def start(self, runner): self.runner = runner self.key = object() runner.register_callback(self.key) self.kwargs["callback"] = runner.result_callback(self.key) self.func(*self.args, **self.kwargs) def is_ready(self): return self.runner.is_ready(self.key) def get_result(self): return self.runner.pop_result(self.key)
class YieldFuture(YieldPoint): def __init__(self, future, io_loop=None): self.future = future self.io_loop = io_loop or IOLoop.current() def start(self, runner): if not self.future.done(): self.runner = runner self.key = object() runner.register_callback(self.key) self.io_loop.add_future(self.future, runner.result_callback(self.key)) else: self.runner = None self.result = self.future.result() def is_ready(self): if self.runner is not None: return self.runner.is_ready(self.key) else: return True def get_result(self): if self.runner is not None: return self.runner.pop_result(self.key).result() else: return self.result class Multi(YieldPoint): """Runs multiple asynchronous operations in parallel. Takes a list of ``Tasks`` or other ``YieldPoints`` and returns a list of their responses. It is not necessary to call `Multi` explicitly, since the engine will do so automatically when the generator yields a list of ``YieldPoints``. """ def __init__(self, children): self.keys = None if isinstance(children, dict): self.keys = list(children.keys()) children = children.values() self.children = [] for i in children: if isinstance(i, Future): i = YieldFuture(i) self.children.append(i) assert all(isinstance(i, YieldPoint) for i in self.children) self.unfinished_children = set(self.children) def start(self, runner): for i in self.children: i.start(runner) def is_ready(self): finished = list(itertools.takewhile( lambda i: i.is_ready(), self.unfinished_children)) self.unfinished_children.difference_update(finished) return not self.unfinished_children def get_result(self): result = (i.get_result() for i in self.children) if self.keys is not None: return dict(zip(self.keys, result)) else: return list(result) class _NullYieldPoint(YieldPoint): def start(self, runner): pass def is_ready(self): return True def get_result(self): return None _null_yield_point = _NullYieldPoint() class Runner(object): """Internal implementation of `tornado.gen.engine`. Maintains information about pending callbacks and their results. ``final_callback`` is run after the generator exits. """ def __init__(self, gen, final_callback): self.gen = gen self.final_callback = final_callback self.yield_point = _null_yield_point self.pending_callbacks = set() self.results = {} self.running = False self.finished = False self.exc_info = None self.had_exception = False def register_callback(self, key): """Adds ``key`` to the list of callbacks.""" if key in self.pending_callbacks: raise KeyReuseError("key %r is already pending" % (key,)) self.pending_callbacks.add(key) def is_ready(self, key): """Returns true if a result is available for ``key``.""" if key not in self.pending_callbacks: raise UnknownKeyError("key %r is not pending" % (key,)) return key in self.results def set_result(self, key, result): """Sets the result for ``key`` and attempts to resume the generator.""" self.results[key] = result self.run() def pop_result(self, key): """Returns the result for ``key`` and unregisters it.""" self.pending_callbacks.remove(key) return self.results.pop(key) def run(self): """Starts or resumes the generator, running until it reaches a yield point that is not ready. """ if self.running or self.finished: return try: self.running = True while True: if self.exc_info is None: try: if not self.yield_point.is_ready(): return next = self.yield_point.get_result() self.yield_point = None except Exception: self.exc_info = sys.exc_info() try: if self.exc_info is not None: self.had_exception = True exc_info = self.exc_info self.exc_info = None yielded = self.gen.throw(*exc_info) else: yielded = self.gen.send(next) except (StopIteration, Return) as e: self.finished = True self.yield_point = _null_yield_point if self.pending_callbacks and not self.had_exception: # If we ran cleanly without waiting on all callbacks # raise an error (really more of a warning). If we # had an exception then some callbacks may have been # orphaned, so skip the check in that case. raise LeakedCallbackError( "finished without waiting for callbacks %r" % self.pending_callbacks) self.final_callback(getattr(e, 'value', None)) self.final_callback = None return except Exception: self.finished = True self.yield_point = _null_yield_point raise if isinstance(yielded, (list, dict)): yielded = Multi(yielded) elif isinstance(yielded, Future): yielded = YieldFuture(yielded) if isinstance(yielded, YieldPoint): self.yield_point = yielded try: self.yield_point.start(self) except Exception: self.exc_info = sys.exc_info() else: self.exc_info = (BadYieldError( "yielded unknown object %r" % (yielded,)),) finally: self.running = False def result_callback(self, key): def inner(*args, **kwargs): if kwargs or len(args) > 1: result = Arguments(args, kwargs) elif args: result = args[0] else: result = None self.set_result(key, result) return wrap(inner) def handle_exception(self, typ, value, tb): if not self.running and not self.finished: self.exc_info = (typ, value, tb) self.run() return True else: return False Arguments = collections.namedtuple('Arguments', ['args', 'kwargs'])