Source code for tornado.testing

#!/usr/bin/env python
"""Support classes for automated testing.

* `AsyncTestCase` and `AsyncHTTPTestCase`:  Subclasses of unittest.TestCase
  with additional support for testing asynchronous (`.IOLoop` based) code.

* `ExpectLog` and `LogTrapTestCase`: Make test logs less spammy.

* `main()`: A simple test runner (wrapper around unittest.main()) with support
  for the tornado.autoreload module to rerun the tests when code changes.

from __future__ import absolute_import, division, print_function, with_statement

    from tornado import gen
    from tornado.httpclient import AsyncHTTPClient
    from tornado.httpserver import HTTPServer
    from tornado.simple_httpclient import SimpleAsyncHTTPClient
    from tornado.ioloop import IOLoop, TimeoutError
    from tornado import netutil
    from tornado.process import Subprocess
except ImportError:
    # These modules are not importable on app engine.  Parts of this module
    # won't work, but e.g. LogTrapTestCase and main() will.
    AsyncHTTPClient = None
    gen = None
    HTTPServer = None
    IOLoop = None
    netutil = None
    SimpleAsyncHTTPClient = None
    Subprocess = None
from tornado.log import gen_log, app_log
from tornado.stack_context import ExceptionStackContext
from tornado.util import raise_exc_info, basestring_type
import functools
import inspect
import logging
import os
import re
import signal
import socket
import sys

    from cStringIO import StringIO  # py2
except ImportError:
    from io import StringIO  # py3

    from import Generator as GeneratorType  # py35+
except ImportError:
    from types import GeneratorType

if sys.version_info >= (3, 5):
    iscoroutine = inspect.iscoroutine
    iscoroutinefunction = inspect.iscoroutinefunction
    iscoroutine = iscoroutinefunction = lambda f: False

# Tornado's own test suite requires the updated unittest module
# (either py27+ or unittest2) so tornado.test.util enforces
# this requirement, but for other users of tornado.testing we want
# to allow the older version if unitest2 is not available.
if sys.version_info >= (3,):
    # On python 3, mixing unittest2 and unittest (including doctest)
    # doesn't seem to work, so always use unittest.
    import unittest
    # On python 2, prefer unittest2 when available.
        import unittest2 as unittest
    except ImportError:
        import unittest

_next_port = 10000

[docs]def get_unused_port(): """Returns a (hopefully) unused port number. This function does not guarantee that the port it returns is available, only that a series of get_unused_port calls in a single process return distinct ports. .. deprecated:: Use bind_unused_port instead, which is guaranteed to find an unused port. """ global _next_port port = _next_port _next_port = _next_port + 1 return port
[docs]def bind_unused_port(reuse_port=False): """Binds a server socket to an available port on localhost. Returns a tuple (socket, port). """ [sock] = netutil.bind_sockets(None, 'localhost', family=socket.AF_INET, reuse_port=reuse_port) port = sock.getsockname()[1] return sock, port
[docs]def get_async_test_timeout(): """Get the global timeout setting for async tests. Returns a float, the timeout in seconds. .. versionadded:: 3.1 """ try: return float(os.environ.get('ASYNC_TEST_TIMEOUT')) except (ValueError, TypeError): return 5
class _TestMethodWrapper(object): """Wraps a test method to raise an error if it returns a value. This is mainly used to detect undecorated generators (if a test method yields it must use a decorator to consume the generator), but will also detect other kinds of return values (these are not necessarily errors, but we alert anyway since there is no good reason to return a value from a test. """ def __init__(self, orig_method): self.orig_method = orig_method def __call__(self, *args, **kwargs): result = self.orig_method(*args, **kwargs) if isinstance(result, GeneratorType) or iscoroutine(result): raise TypeError("Generator and coroutine test methods should be" " decorated with tornado.testing.gen_test") elif result is not None: raise ValueError("Return value from test method ignored: %r" % result) def __getattr__(self, name): """Proxy all unknown attributes to the original method. This is important for some of the decorators in the `unittest` module, such as `unittest.skipIf`. """ return getattr(self.orig_method, name)
[docs]class AsyncTestCase(unittest.TestCase): """`~unittest.TestCase` subclass for testing `.IOLoop`-based asynchronous code. The unittest framework is synchronous, so the test must be complete by the time the test method returns. This means that asynchronous code cannot be used in quite the same way as usual. To write test functions that use the same ``yield``-based patterns used with the `tornado.gen` module, decorate your test methods with `tornado.testing.gen_test` instead of `tornado.gen.coroutine`. This class also provides the `stop()` and `wait()` methods for a more manual style of testing. The test method itself must call ``self.wait()``, and asynchronous callbacks should call ``self.stop()`` to signal completion. By default, a new `.IOLoop` is constructed for each test and is available as ``self.io_loop``. This `.IOLoop` should be used in the construction of HTTP clients/servers, etc. If the code being tested requires a global `.IOLoop`, subclasses should override `get_new_ioloop` to return it. The `.IOLoop`'s ``start`` and ``stop`` methods should not be called directly. Instead, use `self.stop <stop>` and `self.wait <wait>`. Arguments passed to ``self.stop`` are returned from ``self.wait``. It is possible to have multiple ``wait``/``stop`` cycles in the same test. Example:: # This test uses coroutine style. class MyTestCase(AsyncTestCase): @tornado.testing.gen_test def test_http_fetch(self): client = AsyncHTTPClient(self.io_loop) response = yield client.fetch("") # Test contents of response self.assertIn("FriendFeed", response.body) # This test uses argument passing between self.stop and self.wait. class MyTestCase2(AsyncTestCase): def test_http_fetch(self): client = AsyncHTTPClient(self.io_loop) client.fetch("", self.stop) response = self.wait() # Test contents of response self.assertIn("FriendFeed", response.body) # This test uses an explicit callback-based style. class MyTestCase3(AsyncTestCase): def test_http_fetch(self): client = AsyncHTTPClient(self.io_loop) client.fetch("", self.handle_fetch) self.wait() def handle_fetch(self, response): # Test contents of response (failures and exceptions here # will cause self.wait() to throw an exception and end the # test). # Exceptions thrown here are magically propagated to # self.wait() in test_http_fetch() via stack_context. self.assertIn("FriendFeed", response.body) self.stop() """ def __init__(self, methodName='runTest', **kwargs): super(AsyncTestCase, self).__init__(methodName, **kwargs) self.__stopped = False self.__running = False self.__failure = None self.__stop_args = None self.__timeout = None # It's easy to forget the @gen_test decorator, but if you do # the test will silently be ignored because nothing will consume # the generator. Replace the test method with a wrapper that will # make sure it's not an undecorated generator. setattr(self, methodName, _TestMethodWrapper(getattr(self, methodName))) def setUp(self): super(AsyncTestCase, self).setUp() self.io_loop = self.get_new_ioloop() self.io_loop.make_current() def tearDown(self): # Clean up Subprocess, so it can be used again with a new ioloop. Subprocess.uninitialize() self.io_loop.clear_current() if (not IOLoop.initialized() or self.io_loop is not IOLoop.instance()): # Try to clean up any file descriptors left open in the ioloop. # This avoids leaks, especially when tests are run repeatedly # in the same process with autoreload (because curl does not # set FD_CLOEXEC on its file descriptors) self.io_loop.close(all_fds=True) super(AsyncTestCase, self).tearDown() # In case an exception escaped or the StackContext caught an exception # when there wasn't a wait() to re-raise it, do so here. # This is our last chance to raise an exception in a way that the # unittest machinery understands. self.__rethrow()
[docs] def get_new_ioloop(self): """Creates a new `.IOLoop` for this test. May be overridden in subclasses for tests that require a specific `.IOLoop` (usually the singleton `.IOLoop.instance()`). """ return IOLoop()
def _handle_exception(self, typ, value, tb): if self.__failure is None: self.__failure = (typ, value, tb) else: app_log.error("multiple unhandled exceptions in test", exc_info=(typ, value, tb)) self.stop() return True def __rethrow(self): if self.__failure is not None: failure = self.__failure self.__failure = None raise_exc_info(failure) def run(self, result=None): with ExceptionStackContext(self._handle_exception): super(AsyncTestCase, self).run(result) # As a last resort, if an exception escaped and wasn't # re-raised in tearDown, raise it here. This will cause the # unittest run to fail messily, but that's better than silently # ignoring an error. self.__rethrow()
[docs] def stop(self, _arg=None, **kwargs): """Stops the `.IOLoop`, causing one pending (or future) call to `wait()` to return. Keyword arguments or a single positional argument passed to `stop()` are saved and will be returned by `wait()`. """ assert _arg is None or not kwargs self.__stop_args = kwargs or _arg if self.__running: self.io_loop.stop() self.__running = False self.__stopped = True
[docs] def wait(self, condition=None, timeout=None): """Runs the `.IOLoop` until stop is called or timeout has passed. In the event of a timeout, an exception will be thrown. The default timeout is 5 seconds; it may be overridden with a ``timeout`` keyword argument or globally with the ``ASYNC_TEST_TIMEOUT`` environment variable. If ``condition`` is not None, the `.IOLoop` will be restarted after `stop()` until ``condition()`` returns true. .. versionchanged:: 3.1 Added the ``ASYNC_TEST_TIMEOUT`` environment variable. """ if timeout is None: timeout = get_async_test_timeout() if not self.__stopped: if timeout: def timeout_func(): try: raise self.failureException( 'Async operation timed out after %s seconds' % timeout) except Exception: self.__failure = sys.exc_info() self.stop() self.__timeout = self.io_loop.add_timeout(self.io_loop.time() + timeout, timeout_func) while True: self.__running = True self.io_loop.start() if (self.__failure is not None or condition is None or condition()): break if self.__timeout is not None: self.io_loop.remove_timeout(self.__timeout) self.__timeout = None assert self.__stopped self.__stopped = False self.__rethrow() result = self.__stop_args self.__stop_args = None return result
[docs]class AsyncHTTPTestCase(AsyncTestCase): """A test case that starts up an HTTP server. Subclasses must override `get_app()`, which returns the `tornado.web.Application` (or other `.HTTPServer` callback) to be tested. Tests will typically use the provided ``self.http_client`` to fetch URLs from this server. Example, assuming the "Hello, world" example from the user guide is in ````:: import hello class TestHelloApp(AsyncHTTPTestCase): def get_app(self): return hello.make_app() def test_homepage(self): response = self.fetch('/') self.assertEqual(response.code, 200) self.assertEqual(response.body, 'Hello, world') That call to ``self.fetch()`` is equivalent to :: self.http_client.fetch(self.get_url('/'), self.stop) response = self.wait() which illustrates how AsyncTestCase can turn an asynchronous operation, like ``http_client.fetch()``, into a synchronous operation. If you need to do other asynchronous operations in tests, you'll probably need to use ``stop()`` and ``wait()`` yourself. """ def setUp(self): super(AsyncHTTPTestCase, self).setUp() sock, port = bind_unused_port() self.__port = port self.http_client = self.get_http_client() self._app = self.get_app() self.http_server = self.get_http_server() self.http_server.add_sockets([sock]) def get_http_client(self): return AsyncHTTPClient(io_loop=self.io_loop) def get_http_server(self): return HTTPServer(self._app, io_loop=self.io_loop, **self.get_httpserver_options())
[docs] def get_app(self): """Should be overridden by subclasses to return a `tornado.web.Application` or other `.HTTPServer` callback. """ raise NotImplementedError()
[docs] def fetch(self, path, **kwargs): """Convenience method to synchronously fetch a url. The given path will be appended to the local server's host and port. Any additional kwargs will be passed directly to `.AsyncHTTPClient.fetch` (and so could be used to pass ``method="POST"``, ``body="..."``, etc). """ self.http_client.fetch(self.get_url(path), self.stop, **kwargs) return self.wait()
[docs] def get_httpserver_options(self): """May be overridden by subclasses to return additional keyword arguments for the server. """ return {}
[docs] def get_http_port(self): """Returns the port used by the server. A new port is chosen for each test. """ return self.__port
def get_protocol(self): return 'http'
[docs] def get_url(self, path): """Returns an absolute url for the given path on the test server.""" return '%s://localhost:%s%s' % (self.get_protocol(), self.get_http_port(), path)
def tearDown(self): self.http_server.stop() self.io_loop.run_sync(self.http_server.close_all_connections, timeout=get_async_test_timeout()) if (not IOLoop.initialized() or self.http_client.io_loop is not IOLoop.instance()): self.http_client.close() super(AsyncHTTPTestCase, self).tearDown()
[docs]class AsyncHTTPSTestCase(AsyncHTTPTestCase): """A test case that starts an HTTPS server. Interface is generally the same as `AsyncHTTPTestCase`. """ def get_http_client(self): return AsyncHTTPClient(io_loop=self.io_loop, force_instance=True, defaults=dict(validate_cert=False)) def get_httpserver_options(self): return dict(ssl_options=self.get_ssl_options())
[docs] def get_ssl_options(self): """May be overridden by subclasses to select SSL options. By default includes a self-signed testing certificate. """ # Testing keys were generated with: # openssl req -new -keyout tornado/test/test.key -out tornado/test/test.crt -nodes -days 3650 -x509 module_dir = os.path.dirname(__file__) return dict( certfile=os.path.join(module_dir, 'test', 'test.crt'), keyfile=os.path.join(module_dir, 'test', 'test.key'))
def get_protocol(self): return 'https'
[docs]def gen_test(func=None, timeout=None): """Testing equivalent of ``@gen.coroutine``, to be applied to test methods. ``@gen.coroutine`` cannot be used on tests because the `.IOLoop` is not already running. ``@gen_test`` should be applied to test methods on subclasses of `AsyncTestCase`. Example:: class MyTest(AsyncHTTPTestCase): @gen_test def test_something(self): response = yield gen.Task(self.fetch('/')) By default, ``@gen_test`` times out after 5 seconds. The timeout may be overridden globally with the ``ASYNC_TEST_TIMEOUT`` environment variable, or for each test with the ``timeout`` keyword argument:: class MyTest(AsyncHTTPTestCase): @gen_test(timeout=10) def test_something_slow(self): response = yield gen.Task(self.fetch('/')) .. versionadded:: 3.1 The ``timeout`` argument and ``ASYNC_TEST_TIMEOUT`` environment variable. .. versionchanged:: 4.0 The wrapper now passes along ``*args, **kwargs`` so it can be used on functions with arguments. """ if timeout is None: timeout = get_async_test_timeout() def wrap(f): # Stack up several decorators to allow us to access the generator # object itself. In the innermost wrapper, we capture the generator # and save it in an attribute of self. Next, we run the wrapped # function through @gen.coroutine. Finally, the coroutine is # wrapped again to make it synchronous with run_sync. # # This is a good case study arguing for either some sort of # extensibility in the gen decorators or cancellation support. @functools.wraps(f) def pre_coroutine(self, *args, **kwargs): result = f(self, *args, **kwargs) if isinstance(result, GeneratorType) or iscoroutine(result): self._test_generator = result else: self._test_generator = None return result if iscoroutinefunction(f): coro = pre_coroutine else: coro = gen.coroutine(pre_coroutine) @functools.wraps(coro) def post_coroutine(self, *args, **kwargs): try: return self.io_loop.run_sync( functools.partial(coro, self, *args, **kwargs), timeout=timeout) except TimeoutError as e: # run_sync raises an error with an unhelpful traceback. # Throw it back into the generator or coroutine so the stack # trace is replaced by the point where the test is stopped. self._test_generator.throw(e) # In case the test contains an overly broad except clause, # we may get back here. In this case re-raise the original # exception, which is better than nothing. raise return post_coroutine if func is not None: # Used like: # @gen_test # def f(self): # pass return wrap(func) else: # Used like @gen_test(timeout=10) return wrap # Without this attribute, nosetests will try to run gen_test as a test # anywhere it is imported.
gen_test.__test__ = False
[docs]class LogTrapTestCase(unittest.TestCase): """A test case that captures and discards all logging output if the test passes. Some libraries can produce a lot of logging output even when the test succeeds, so this class can be useful to minimize the noise. Simply use it as a base class for your test case. It is safe to combine with AsyncTestCase via multiple inheritance (``class MyTestCase(AsyncHTTPTestCase, LogTrapTestCase):``) This class assumes that only one log handler is configured and that it is a `~logging.StreamHandler`. This is true for both `logging.basicConfig` and the "pretty logging" configured by `tornado.options`. It is not compatible with other log buffering mechanisms, such as those provided by some test runners. .. deprecated:: 4.1 Use the unittest module's ``--buffer`` option instead, or `.ExpectLog`. """ def run(self, result=None): logger = logging.getLogger() if not logger.handlers: logging.basicConfig() handler = logger.handlers[0] if (len(logger.handlers) > 1 or not isinstance(handler, logging.StreamHandler)): # Logging has been configured in a way we don't recognize, # so just leave it alone. super(LogTrapTestCase, self).run(result) return old_stream = try: = StringIO()"RUNNING TEST: " + str(self)) old_error_count = len(result.failures) + len(result.errors) super(LogTrapTestCase, self).run(result) new_error_count = len(result.failures) + len(result.errors) if new_error_count != old_error_count: old_stream.write( finally: = old_stream
[docs]class ExpectLog(logging.Filter): """Context manager to capture and suppress expected log output. Useful to make tests of error conditions less noisy, while still leaving unexpected log entries visible. *Not thread safe.* The attribute ``logged_stack`` is set to true if any exception stack trace was logged. Usage:: with ExpectLog('tornado.application', "Uncaught exception"): error_response = self.fetch("/some_page") .. versionchanged:: 4.3 Added the ``logged_stack`` attribute. """ def __init__(self, logger, regex, required=True): """Constructs an ExpectLog context manager. :param logger: Logger object (or name of logger) to watch. Pass an empty string to watch the root logger. :param regex: Regular expression to match. Any log entries on the specified logger that match this regex will be suppressed. :param required: If true, an exeption will be raised if the end of the ``with`` statement is reached without matching any log entries. """ if isinstance(logger, basestring_type): logger = logging.getLogger(logger) self.logger = logger self.regex = re.compile(regex) self.required = required self.matched = False self.logged_stack = False def filter(self, record): if record.exc_info: self.logged_stack = True message = record.getMessage() if self.regex.match(message): self.matched = True return False return True def __enter__(self): self.logger.addFilter(self) return self def __exit__(self, typ, value, tb): self.logger.removeFilter(self) if not typ and self.required and not self.matched: raise Exception("did not get expected log message")
[docs]def main(**kwargs): """A simple test runner. This test runner is essentially equivalent to `unittest.main` from the standard library, but adds support for tornado-style option parsing and log formatting. The easiest way to run a test is via the command line:: python -m tornado.testing tornado.test.stack_context_test See the standard library unittest module for ways in which tests can be specified. Projects with many tests may wish to define a test script like ``tornado/test/``. This script should define a method ``all()`` which returns a test suite and then call `tornado.testing.main()`. Note that even when a test script is used, the ``all()`` test suite may be overridden by naming a single test on the command line:: # Runs all tests python -m tornado.test.runtests # Runs one test python -m tornado.test.runtests tornado.test.stack_context_test Additional keyword arguments passed through to ``unittest.main()``. For example, use ``tornado.testing.main(verbosity=2)`` to show many test details as they are run. See for full argument list. """ from tornado.options import define, options, parse_command_line define('exception_on_interrupt', type=bool, default=True, help=("If true (default), ctrl-c raises a KeyboardInterrupt " "exception. This prints a stack trace but cannot interrupt " "certain operations. If false, the process is more reliably " "killed, but does not print a stack trace.")) # support the same options as unittest's command-line interface define('verbose', type=bool) define('quiet', type=bool) define('failfast', type=bool) define('catch', type=bool) define('buffer', type=bool) argv = [sys.argv[0]] + parse_command_line(sys.argv) if not options.exception_on_interrupt: signal.signal(signal.SIGINT, signal.SIG_DFL) if options.verbose is not None: kwargs['verbosity'] = 2 if options.quiet is not None: kwargs['verbosity'] = 0 if options.failfast is not None: kwargs['failfast'] = True if options.catch is not None: kwargs['catchbreak'] = True if options.buffer is not None: kwargs['buffer'] = True if __name__ == '__main__' and len(argv) == 1: print("No tests specified", file=sys.stderr) sys.exit(1) try: # In order to be able to run tests by their fully-qualified name # on the command line without importing all tests here, # module must be set to None. Python 3.2's unittest.main ignores # defaultTest if no module is given (it tries to do its own # test discovery, which is incompatible with auto2to3), so don't # set module if we're not asking for a specific test. if len(argv) > 1: unittest.main(module=None, argv=argv, **kwargs) else: unittest.main(defaultTest="all", argv=argv, **kwargs) except SystemExit as e: if e.code == 0:'PASS') else: gen_log.error('FAIL') raise
if __name__ == '__main__': main()