tornado.escape — Escaping and string manipulation

Escaping/unescaping methods for HTML, JSON, URLs, and others.

Also includes a few other miscellaneous string manipulation functions that have crept in over time.

Escaping functions

tornado.escape.xhtml_escape(value: Union[str, bytes])str[source]

Escapes a string so it is valid within HTML or XML.

Escapes the characters <, >, ", ', and &. When used in attribute values the escaped strings must be enclosed in quotes.

Changed in version 3.2: Added the single quote to the list of escaped characters.

tornado.escape.xhtml_unescape(value: Union[str, bytes])str[source]

Un-escapes an XML-escaped string.

tornado.escape.url_escape(value: Union[str, bytes], plus: bool = True)str[source]

Returns a URL-encoded version of the given value.

If plus is true (the default), spaces will be represented as “+” instead of “%20”. This is appropriate for query strings but not for the path component of a URL. Note that this default is the reverse of Python’s urllib module.

New in version 3.1: The plus argument

tornado.escape.url_unescape(value: Union[str, bytes], encoding: None, plus: bool = 'True')bytes[source]
tornado.escape.url_unescape(value: Union[str, bytes], encoding: str = "'utf-8'", plus: bool = 'True')str

Decodes the given value from a URL.

The argument may be either a byte or unicode string.

If encoding is None, the result will be a byte string. Otherwise, the result is a unicode string in the specified encoding.

If plus is true (the default), plus signs will be interpreted as spaces (literal plus signs must be represented as “%2B”). This is appropriate for query strings and form-encoded values but not for the path component of a URL. Note that this default is the reverse of Python’s urllib module.

New in version 3.1: The plus argument

tornado.escape.json_encode(value: Any)str[source]

JSON-encodes the given Python object.

tornado.escape.json_decode(value: Union[str, bytes]) → Any[source]

Returns Python objects for the given JSON string.

Supports both str and bytes inputs.

Byte/unicode conversions

tornado.escape.utf8(value: bytes)bytes[source]
tornado.escape.utf8(value: str)bytes
tornado.escape.utf8(value: None)None

Converts a string argument to a byte string.

If the argument is already a byte string or None, it is returned unchanged. Otherwise it must be a unicode string and is encoded as utf8.

tornado.escape.to_unicode(value: str)str[source]
tornado.escape.to_unicode(value: bytes)str
tornado.escape.to_unicode(value: None)None

Converts a string argument to a unicode string.

If the argument is already a unicode string or None, it is returned unchanged. Otherwise it must be a byte string and is decoded as utf8.

tornado.escape.native_str()
tornado.escape.to_basestring()

Converts a byte or unicode string into type str. These functions were used to help transition from Python 2 to Python 3 but are now deprecated aliases for to_unicode.

tornado.escape.recursive_unicode(obj: Any) → Any[source]

Walks a simple data structure, converting byte strings to unicode.

Supports lists, tuples, and dictionaries.

Miscellaneous functions

tornado.escape.linkify(text: Union[str, bytes], shorten: bool = False, extra_params: Union[str, Callable[[str], str]] = '', require_protocol: bool = False, permitted_protocols: List[str] = ['http', 'https'])str[source]

Converts plain text into HTML with links.

For example: linkify("Hello http://tornadoweb.org!") would return Hello <a href="http://tornadoweb.org">http://tornadoweb.org</a>!

Parameters:

  • shorten: Long urls will be shortened for display.

  • extra_params: Extra text to include in the link tag, or a callable taking the link as an argument and returning the extra text e.g. linkify(text, extra_params='rel="nofollow" class="external"'), or:

    def extra_params_cb(url):
        if url.startswith("http://example.com"):
            return 'class="internal"'
        else:
            return 'class="external" rel="nofollow"'
    linkify(text, extra_params=extra_params_cb)
    
  • require_protocol: Only linkify urls which include a protocol. If this is False, urls such as www.facebook.com will also be linkified.

  • permitted_protocols: List (or set) of protocols which should be linkified, e.g. linkify(text, permitted_protocols=["http", "ftp", "mailto"]). It is very unsafe to include protocols such as javascript.

tornado.escape.squeeze(value: str)str[source]

Replace all sequences of whitespace chars with a single space.