Source code for tornado.process

# Copyright 2011 Facebook
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may
# not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain
# a copy of the License at
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
# WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
# License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.

"""Utilities for working with multiple processes, including both forking
the server into multiple processes and managing subprocesses.

import os
import multiprocessing
import signal
import subprocess
import sys
import time

from binascii import hexlify

from tornado.concurrent import (
from tornado import ioloop
from tornado.iostream import PipeIOStream
from tornado.log import gen_log

import typing
from typing import Optional, Any, Callable

if typing.TYPE_CHECKING:
    from typing import List  # noqa: F401

# Re-export this exception for convenience.
CalledProcessError = subprocess.CalledProcessError

[docs]def cpu_count() -> int: """Returns the number of processors on this machine.""" if multiprocessing is None: return 1 try: return multiprocessing.cpu_count() except NotImplementedError: pass try: return os.sysconf("SC_NPROCESSORS_CONF") # type: ignore except (AttributeError, ValueError): pass gen_log.error("Could not detect number of processors; assuming 1") return 1
def _reseed_random() -> None: if "random" not in sys.modules: return import random # If os.urandom is available, this method does the same thing as # random.seed (at least as of python 2.6). If os.urandom is not # available, we mix in the pid in addition to a timestamp. try: seed = int(hexlify(os.urandom(16)), 16) except NotImplementedError: seed = int(time.time() * 1000) ^ os.getpid() random.seed(seed) _task_id = None
[docs]def fork_processes( num_processes: Optional[int], max_restarts: Optional[int] = None ) -> int: """Starts multiple worker processes. If ``num_processes`` is None or <= 0, we detect the number of cores available on this machine and fork that number of child processes. If ``num_processes`` is given and > 0, we fork that specific number of sub-processes. Since we use processes and not threads, there is no shared memory between any server code. Note that multiple processes are not compatible with the autoreload module (or the ``autoreload=True`` option to `tornado.web.Application` which defaults to True when ``debug=True``). When using multiple processes, no IOLoops can be created or referenced until after the call to ``fork_processes``. In each child process, ``fork_processes`` returns its *task id*, a number between 0 and ``num_processes``. Processes that exit abnormally (due to a signal or non-zero exit status) are restarted with the same id (up to ``max_restarts`` times). In the parent process, ``fork_processes`` calls ``sys.exit(0)`` after all child processes have exited normally. max_restarts defaults to 100. Availability: Unix """ if sys.platform == "win32": # The exact form of this condition matters to mypy; it understands # if but not assert in this context. raise Exception("fork not available on windows") if max_restarts is None: max_restarts = 100 global _task_id assert _task_id is None if num_processes is None or num_processes <= 0: num_processes = cpu_count()"Starting %d processes", num_processes) children = {} def start_child(i: int) -> Optional[int]: pid = os.fork() if pid == 0: # child process _reseed_random() global _task_id _task_id = i return i else: children[pid] = i return None for i in range(num_processes): id = start_child(i) if id is not None: return id num_restarts = 0 while children: pid, status = os.wait() if pid not in children: continue id = children.pop(pid) if os.WIFSIGNALED(status): gen_log.warning( "child %d (pid %d) killed by signal %d, restarting", id, pid, os.WTERMSIG(status), ) elif os.WEXITSTATUS(status) != 0: gen_log.warning( "child %d (pid %d) exited with status %d, restarting", id, pid, os.WEXITSTATUS(status), ) else:"child %d (pid %d) exited normally", id, pid) continue num_restarts += 1 if num_restarts > max_restarts: raise RuntimeError("Too many child restarts, giving up") new_id = start_child(id) if new_id is not None: return new_id # All child processes exited cleanly, so exit the master process # instead of just returning to right after the call to # fork_processes (which will probably just start up another IOLoop # unless the caller checks the return value). sys.exit(0)
[docs]def task_id() -> Optional[int]: """Returns the current task id, if any. Returns None if this process was not created by `fork_processes`. """ global _task_id return _task_id
[docs]class Subprocess(object): """Wraps ``subprocess.Popen`` with IOStream support. The constructor is the same as ``subprocess.Popen`` with the following additions: * ``stdin``, ``stdout``, and ``stderr`` may have the value ``tornado.process.Subprocess.STREAM``, which will make the corresponding attribute of the resulting Subprocess a `.PipeIOStream`. If this option is used, the caller is responsible for closing the streams when done with them. The ``Subprocess.STREAM`` option and the ``set_exit_callback`` and ``wait_for_exit`` methods do not work on Windows. There is therefore no reason to use this class instead of ``subprocess.Popen`` on that platform. .. versionchanged:: 5.0 The ``io_loop`` argument (deprecated since version 4.1) has been removed. """ STREAM = object() _initialized = False _waiting = {} # type: ignore _old_sigchld = None def __init__(self, *args: Any, **kwargs: Any) -> None: self.io_loop = ioloop.IOLoop.current() # All FDs we create should be closed on error; those in to_close # should be closed in the parent process on success. pipe_fds = [] # type: List[int] to_close = [] # type: List[int] if kwargs.get("stdin") is Subprocess.STREAM: in_r, in_w = os.pipe() kwargs["stdin"] = in_r pipe_fds.extend((in_r, in_w)) to_close.append(in_r) self.stdin = PipeIOStream(in_w) if kwargs.get("stdout") is Subprocess.STREAM: out_r, out_w = os.pipe() kwargs["stdout"] = out_w pipe_fds.extend((out_r, out_w)) to_close.append(out_w) self.stdout = PipeIOStream(out_r) if kwargs.get("stderr") is Subprocess.STREAM: err_r, err_w = os.pipe() kwargs["stderr"] = err_w pipe_fds.extend((err_r, err_w)) to_close.append(err_w) self.stderr = PipeIOStream(err_r) try: self.proc = subprocess.Popen(*args, **kwargs) except: for fd in pipe_fds: os.close(fd) raise for fd in to_close: os.close(fd) = for attr in ["stdin", "stdout", "stderr"]: if not hasattr(self, attr): # don't clobber streams set above setattr(self, attr, getattr(self.proc, attr)) self._exit_callback = None # type: Optional[Callable[[int], None]] self.returncode = None # type: Optional[int]
[docs] def set_exit_callback(self, callback: Callable[[int], None]) -> None: """Runs ``callback`` when this process exits. The callback takes one argument, the return code of the process. This method uses a ``SIGCHLD`` handler, which is a global setting and may conflict if you have other libraries trying to handle the same signal. If you are using more than one ``IOLoop`` it may be necessary to call `Subprocess.initialize` first to designate one ``IOLoop`` to run the signal handlers. In many cases a close callback on the stdout or stderr streams can be used as an alternative to an exit callback if the signal handler is causing a problem. Availability: Unix """ self._exit_callback = callback Subprocess.initialize() Subprocess._waiting[] = self Subprocess._try_cleanup_process(
[docs] def wait_for_exit(self, raise_error: bool = True) -> "Future[int]": """Returns a `.Future` which resolves when the process exits. Usage:: ret = yield proc.wait_for_exit() This is a coroutine-friendly alternative to `set_exit_callback` (and a replacement for the blocking `subprocess.Popen.wait`). By default, raises `subprocess.CalledProcessError` if the process has a non-zero exit status. Use ``wait_for_exit(raise_error=False)`` to suppress this behavior and return the exit status without raising. .. versionadded:: 4.2 Availability: Unix """ future = Future() # type: Future[int] def callback(ret: int) -> None: if ret != 0 and raise_error: # Unfortunately we don't have the original args any more. future_set_exception_unless_cancelled( future, CalledProcessError(ret, "unknown") ) else: future_set_result_unless_cancelled(future, ret) self.set_exit_callback(callback) return future
[docs] @classmethod def initialize(cls) -> None: """Initializes the ``SIGCHLD`` handler. The signal handler is run on an `.IOLoop` to avoid locking issues. Note that the `.IOLoop` used for signal handling need not be the same one used by individual Subprocess objects (as long as the ``IOLoops`` are each running in separate threads). .. versionchanged:: 5.0 The ``io_loop`` argument (deprecated since version 4.1) has been removed. Availability: Unix """ if cls._initialized: return io_loop = ioloop.IOLoop.current() cls._old_sigchld = signal.signal( signal.SIGCHLD, lambda sig, frame: io_loop.add_callback_from_signal(cls._cleanup), ) cls._initialized = True
[docs] @classmethod def uninitialize(cls) -> None: """Removes the ``SIGCHLD`` handler.""" if not cls._initialized: return signal.signal(signal.SIGCHLD, cls._old_sigchld) cls._initialized = False
@classmethod def _cleanup(cls) -> None: for pid in list(cls._waiting.keys()): # make a copy cls._try_cleanup_process(pid) @classmethod def _try_cleanup_process(cls, pid: int) -> None: try: ret_pid, status = os.waitpid(pid, os.WNOHANG) # type: ignore except ChildProcessError: return if ret_pid == 0: return assert ret_pid == pid subproc = cls._waiting.pop(pid) subproc.io_loop.add_callback_from_signal(subproc._set_returncode, status) def _set_returncode(self, status: int) -> None: if sys.platform == "win32": self.returncode = -1 else: if os.WIFSIGNALED(status): self.returncode = -os.WTERMSIG(status) else: assert os.WIFEXITED(status) self.returncode = os.WEXITSTATUS(status) # We've taken over wait() duty from the subprocess.Popen # object. If we don't inform it of the process's return code, # it will log a warning at destruction in python 3.6+. self.proc.returncode = self.returncode if self._exit_callback: callback = self._exit_callback self._exit_callback = None callback(self.returncode)